People Should Find A Safe Storm Shelter During Thunderstorm

Storm Shelters in OKC

Tuesday June 5, 2001 marked the start of an extremely fascinating time in the annals of my cherished Houston. Tropical storm Allison, that early summer daytime came to see. The thunderstorm went rapidly, although there was Tuesday. Friday, afterward arrived, and Allison returned. This time going slowly, this time in the north. The thunderstorm became still. Thousands of people driven from their houses. Only when they might be desired most, several leading hospitals shut. Dozens of important surface roads, and every important highway covered in water that was high.

Yet even prior to the rain stopped, service to others, and narratives of Christian compassion started to be composed. For a couples class, about 75 people had assembled at Lakewood Church among the greatest nondenominational churches in The United States. From time they got ready to depart the waters had climbed so high they were stranded. The facility of Lakewood stayed dry and high at the center of among the hardest hit parts of town. Refugees in the powerful thunderstorm started arriving at their doorstep. Without no advance preparation, and demand of official sanction, those 75 classmates started a calamity shelter that grew to hold over 3,000 customers. The greatest of over 30 refuges that could be established in the height of the thunderstorm.

Where help was doled out to those who’d suffered losses after Lakewood functioned as a Red Cross Service Center. When it became clear that FEMA aid, and Red Cross wouldn’t bring aid enough, Lakewood and Second Baptist joined -Houston to produce an adopt a family plan to greatly help get folks on their feet quicker. In the occasions that followed militaries of Christians arrived in both churches. From all over town, people of economical standing, race, and each and every denomination collected. Wet rotted carpeting were pulled up, sheet stone removed. Piles of clothes donated food and bed clothes were doled out. Elbow grease and cleaning equipment were used to start eliminating traces of the damage.

It would have been an excellent example of practical ministry in a period of disaster, in the event the story stopped here, but it continues. A great many other churches functioned as shelters as well as in the occasions that followed Red Cross Service Centers. Tons of new volunteers, a lot of them Christians put to work, and were put through accelerated training. That Saturday, I used to be trapped in my own, personal subdivision. Particular that my family was safe because I worked in Storm Shelters OKC that was near where I used to live. What they wouldn’t permit the storm to do, is take their demand to give their religion, or their self respect. I saw so a lot of people as they brought gifts of food, clothes and bedclothes, praising the Lord. I saw young kids coming making use of their parents to not give new, rarely used toys to kids who had none.

Leaning On God Through Hard Times

Unity Church of Christianity from a location across town impacted by the storm sent a sizable way to obtain bedding as well as other supplies. A tiny troupe of musicians and Christian clowns requested to be permitted to amuse the kids in the shelter where I served and arrived. We of course promptly taken their offer. The kids were collected by them in a sizable empty space of flooring. They sang, they told stories, balloon animals were made by them. The kids, frightened, at least briefly displaced laughed.

When not occupied elsewhere I did lots of listening. I listened to survivors that were disappointed, and frustrated relief workers. I listened to kids make an effort to take advantage of a scenario they could not comprehend. All these are only the stories I have heard or seen. I am aware that spiritual groups, Churches, and lots of other individual Christians functioned admirably. I do need to thank them for the attempts in disaster. I thank The Lord for supplying them to serve.

I didn’t write its individuals, or this which means you’d feel sorry for Houston. As this disaster unfolded yet what I saw encouraged my beliefs the Lord will provide through our brothers and sisters in religion for us. Regardless how awful your community hits, you the individual Christian can be a part of the remedy. Those blankets you can probably never use, and have stored away mean much to people who have none. You are able to help in the event that you can drive. You are able to help if you’re able to create a cot. It is possible to help in the event that you can scrub a wall. It is possible to help if all you are able to do is sit and listen. Large catastrophes like Allison get lots of focus. However a disaster can come in virtually any size. That is a serious disaster to your family that called it home in case a single household burns. It is going to be generations prior to the folks here forget Allison.

United States Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities

Firms investing in this sector can research, develop and create, as well as appreciate the edges of a global gas and oil portfolio with no political and economical disadvantages. Allowing regime and the US financial conditions is rated amongst the world and the petroleum made in US is sold at costs that were international. The firms will likely gain as US also has a national market that is booming. Where 500 exploration wells are drilled most of the petroleum exploration in US continues to be concentrated around the Taranaki Basin. On the other hand, the US sedimentary basins still remain unexplored and many show existence of petroleum seeps and arrangements were also unveiled by the investigation data with high hydrocarbon potential. There have already been onshore gas discoveries before including Great south river basins, East Coast Basin and offshore Canterbury.

As interest in petroleum is expected to grow strongly during this interval but this doesn’t automatically dim the bright future expectations in this sector. The interest in petroleum is anticipated to reach 338 PJ per annum. The US government is eager to augment the gas and oil supply. As new discoveries in this sector are required to carry through the national demand at the same time as raise the amount of self reliance and minimize the cost on imports of petroleum the Gas and Oil exploration sector is thought to be among the dawn sectors. The US government has invented a distinctive approach to reach its petroleum and gas exploration targets. It’s developed a “Benefit For Attempt” model for Petroleum and Gas exploration tasks in US.

The “Benefit For Attempt” in today’s analytic thinking is defined as oil reserves found per kilometer drilled. It will help in deriving the estimate of reservations drilled for dollar and each kilometer spent for each investigation. The authorities of US has revealed considerable signs that it’ll bring positive effects of change which will favor investigation of new oil reserves since the price of investigation has adverse effects on investigation task. The Authorities of US has made the information accessible about the oil potential in its study report. Foil of advice in royalty and allocation regimes, and simplicity of processes have enhanced the attractiveness of Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector in the United States.

Petroleum was the third biggest export earner in 2008 for US and the chance to to keep up the growth of the sector is broadly accessible by manners of investigation endeavors that are new. The government is poised to keep the impetus in this sector. Now many firms are active with new exploration jobs in the Challenger Plateau of the United States, Northland East Slope Basin region, outer Taranaki Basin, and Bellona Trough region. The 89 Energy oil and gas sector guarantees foreign investors as government to high increase has declared a five year continuance of an exemption for offshore petroleum and gas exploration in its 2009 budget. The authorities provide nonresident rig operators with tax breaks.

Modern Robot Duct Cleaning Uses

AC systems, and heat, venting collect pollutants and contaminants like mold, debris, dust and bacteria that can have an adverse impact on indoor air quality. Most folks are at present aware that indoor air pollution could be a health concern and increased visibility has been thus gained by the area. Studies have also suggested cleaning their efficacy enhances and is contributory to a longer operating life, along with maintenance and energy cost savings. The cleaning of the parts of forced air systems of heat, venting and cooling system is what’s called duct cleaning. Robots are an advantageous tool raising the price and efficacy facets of the procedure. Therefore, using modern robot duct isn’t any longer a new practice.

A cleaner, healthier indoor environment is created by a clean air duct system which lowers energy prices and increases efficiency. As we spend more hours inside air duct cleaning has become an important variable in the cleaning sector. Indoor pollutant levels can increase. Health effects can show years or up immediately after repeated or long exposure. These effects range from some respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer that can be deadly or debilitating. Therefore, it’s wise to ensure indoor air quality isn’t endangered inside buildings. Dangerous pollutants that can found in inside can transcend outdoor air pollutants in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency.

Duct cleaning from Air Duct Cleaning Edmond professionals removes microbial contaminants, that might not be visible to the naked eye together with both observable contaminants. Indoor air quality cans impact and present a health hazard. Air ducts can be host to a number of health hazard microbial agents. Legionnaires Disease is one malaise that’s got public notice as our modern surroundings supports the development of the bacteria that has the potential to cause outbreaks and causes the affliction. Typical disorder-causing surroundings contain wetness producing gear such as those in air conditioned buildings with cooling towers that are badly maintained. In summary, in building and designing systems to control our surroundings, we’ve created conditions that were perfect . Those systems must be correctly tracked and preserved. That’s the secret to controlling this disorder.

Robots allow for the occupation while saving workers from exposure to be done faster. Signs of the technological progress in the duct cleaning business is apparent in the variety of gear now available for example, array of robotic gear, to be used in air duct cleaning. Robots are priceless in hard to reach places. Robots used to see states inside the duct, now may be used for spraying, cleaning and sampling procedures. The remote controlled robotic gear can be fitted with practical and fastener characteristics to reach many different use functions.

Video recorders and a closed circuit television camera system can be attached to the robotic gear to view states and operations and for documentation purposes. Inside ducts are inspected by review apparatus in the robot. Robots traveling to particular sections of the system and can move around barriers. Some join functions that empower cleaning operation and instruction manual and fit into little ducts. An useful view range can be delivered by them with models delivering disinfection, cleaning, review, coating and sealing abilities economically.

The remote controlled robotic gear comes in various sizes and shapes for different uses. Of robotic video cameras the first use was in the 80s to record states inside the duct. Robotic cleaning systems have a lot more uses. These devices provide improved accessibility for better cleaning and reduce labor costs. Lately, functions have been expanded by areas for the use of small mobile robots in the service industries, including uses for review and duct cleaning.

More improvements are being considered to make a tool that was productive even more effective. If you determine to have your ventilation, heat and cooling system cleaned, it’s important to make sure all parts of the system clean and is qualified to achieve this. Failure to clean one part of a contaminated system can lead to re-contamination of the entire system.

When To Call A DWI Attorney

Charges or fees against a DWI offender need a legal Sugar Land criminal defense attorney that is qualified dismiss or so that you can reduce charges or the fees. So, undoubtedly a DWI attorney is needed by everyone. Even if it’s a first-time violation the penalties can be severe being represented by a DWI attorney that is qualified is vitally significant. If you’re facing following charges for DWI subsequently the punishments can contain felony charges and be severe. Locating an excellent attorney is thus a job you should approach when possible.

So you must bear in mind that you just should hire a DWI attorney who practices within the state where the violation occurred every state within America will make its laws and legislation regarding DWI violations. It is because they are going to have the knowledge and expertise of state law that is relevant to sufficiently defend you and will be knowledgeable about the processes and evaluations performed to establish your guilt.

As your attorney they are going to look to the evaluations that have been completed at the time of your arrest and the authorities evidence that is accompanying to assess whether or not these evaluations were accurately performed, carried out by competent staff and if the right processes where followed. It isn’t often that a police testimony is asserted against, although authorities testimony also can be challenged in court.

You should attempt to locate someone who specializes in these kind of cases when you start trying to find a DWI attorney. Whilst many attorneys may be willing to consider on your case, a lawyer who specializes in these cases is required by the skilled knowledge needed to interpret the scientific and medical evaluations ran when you had been detained. The first consultation is free and provides you with the chance to to inquire further about their experience in fees and these cases.

Many attorneys will work according into a fee that is hourly or on a set fee basis determined by the kind of case. You may find how they have been paid to satisfy your financial situation and you will have the capacity to negotiate the conditions of their fee. If you are unable to afford to hire an attorney that is private you then can request a court-appointed attorney paid for by the state. Before you hire a DWI attorney you should make sure when you might be expected to appear in court and you understand the precise charges imposed against you.

How Credit Card Works

The credit card is making your life more easy, supplying an amazing set of options. The credit card is a retail trade settlement; a credit system worked through the little plastic card which bears its name. Regulated by ISO 7810 defines credit cards the actual card itself consistently chooses the same structure, size and contour. A strip of a special stuff on the card (the substance resembles the floppy disk or a magnetic group) is saving all the necessary data. This magnetic strip enables the credit card’s validation. The layout has become an important variable; an enticing credit card layout is essential in ensuring advice and its dependability keeping properties.

A credit card is supplied to the user just after a bank approves an account, estimating a varied variety of variables to ascertain fiscal dependability. This bank is the credit supplier. When a purchase is being made by an individual, he must sign a receipt to verify the trade. There are the card details, and the amount of cash to be paid. You can find many shops that take electronic authority for the credit cards and use cloud tokenization for authorization. Nearly all verification are made using a digital verification system; it enables assessing the card is not invalid. If the customer has enough cash to insure the purchase he could be attempting to make staying on his credit limit any retailer may also check.

As the credit supplier, it is as much as the banks to keep the user informed of his statement. They typically send monthly statements detailing each trade procedures through the outstanding fees, the card and the sums owed. This enables the cardholder to ensure all the payments are right, and to discover mistakes or fraudulent action to dispute. Interest is typically charging and establishes a minimal repayment amount by the end of the following billing cycle.

The precise way the interest is charged is normally set within an initial understanding. On the rear of the credit card statement these elements are specified by the supplier. Generally, the credit card is an easy type of revolving credit from one month to another. It can also be a classy financial instrument, having many balance sections to afford a greater extent for credit management. Interest rates may also be not the same as one card to another. The credit card promotion services are using some appealing incentives find some new ones along the way and to keep their customers.

Why Get Help From A Property Management?

One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the revenue of your rental home would be to engage and contact property management in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. If you wish to know more and are considering the product please browse the remainder of the post. Leasing out your bit of real property may be real cash-cow as many landlords understand, but that cash flow usually includes a tremendous concern. Night phones from tenants that have the trouble of marketing the house if you own an emptiness just take out lots of the pleasure of earning money off of leases, overdue lease payments which you must chase down, as well as over-flowing lavatories. One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the earnings would be to engage a property management organization.

These businesses perform as the go between for the tenant as well as you. The tenant will not actually need to understand who you’re when you hire a property management company. The company manages the day to day while you still possess the ability to help make the final judgements in regards to the home relationships using the tenant. The company may manage the marketing for you personally, for those who are in possession of a unit that is vacant. Since the company is going to have more connections in a bigger market than you’ve got along with the industry than you are doing, you’ll discover your device gets stuffed a whole lot more quickly making use of their aid. In addition, the property management company may care for testing prospective tenants. With regards to the arrangement you’ve got, you might nevertheless not be unable to get the last say regarding if a tenant is qualified for the the system, but of locating a suitable tenant, the day-to-day difficulty is not any longer your problem. They’ll also manage the before-move-in the reviews as well as reviews required following a tenant moves away.

It is possible to step back watching the profits, after the the system is stuffed. Communicating will be handled by the company with all the tenant if you have an issue. You won’t be telephoned if this pipe explosions at the center of the night time. Your consultant is called by the tenant in the company, who then makes the preparations that are required to get the issue repaired with a care supplier. You get a phone call a day later or may not know there was an issue before you register using the business. The property management organization may also make your leasing obligations to to get. The company will do what’s required to accumulate if your tenant is making a payment. In certain arrangements, the organization is going to also take-over paying taxation, insurance, and the mortgage on the portion of property. You actually need to do-nothing but appreciate after after all the the invoices are paid, the revenue which is sent your way.

With all the advantages, you’re probably questioning exactly what to employing a property management organization, the downside should be. From hiring one the primary variable that stops some landlords is the price. All these providers will be paid for by you. The price must be weighed by you from the time frame you’ll save time that you may subsequently use to follow additional revenue-producing efforts or just take pleasure in the fruits of your expense work.

Benifits From An Orthodontic Care

Orthodontics is the specialty of dentistry centered on the identification and treatment of dental and related facial problems. The outcomes of Norman Orthodontist OKC treatment could be dramatic — an advanced quality of life for a lot of individuals of ages and lovely grins, improved oral health health, aesthetics and increased cosmetic tranquility. Whether into a look dentistry attention is needed or not is an individual’s own choice. Situations are tolerated by most folks like totally various kinds of bite issues or over bites and don’t get treated. Nevertheless, a number people sense guaranteed with teeth that are correctly aligned, appealing and simpler. Dentistry attention may enhance construct and appearance power. It jointly might work with you consult with clearness or to gnaw on greater.

Orthodontic attention isn’t only decorative in character. It might also gain long term oral health health. Right, correctly aligned teeth is not more difficult to floss and clean. This may ease and decrease the risk of rot. It may also quit periodontists irritation that problems gums. Periodontists might finish in disease, that occurs once micro-organism bunch round your house where the teeth and the gums meet. Periodontists can be ended in by untreated periodontists. Such an unhealthiness result in enamel reduction and may ruin bone that surrounds the teeth. Less may be chewed by people who have stings that are harmful with efficacy. A few of us using a serious bite down side might have difficulties obtaining enough nutrients. Once the teeth aren’t aimed correctly, this somewhat might happen. Morsel issues that are repairing may allow it to be more easy to chew and digest meals.

One may also have language problems, when the top and lower front teeth do not arrange right. All these are fixed through therapy, occasionally combined with medical help. Eventually, remedy may ease to avoid early use of rear areas. Your teeth grow to an unlikely quantity of pressure, as you chew down. In case your top teeth do not match it’ll trigger your teeth that are back to degrade. The most frequently encountered type of therapy is the braces (or retainer) and head-gear. But, a lot people complain about suffering with this technique that, unfortunately, is also unavoidable. Sport braces damages, as well as additional individuals have problem in talking. Dental practitioners, though, state several days can be normally disappeared throughout by the hurting. Occasionally annoyance is caused by them. In the event that you’d like to to quit more unpleasant senses, fresh, soft and tedious food must be avoided by you. In addition, tend not to take your braces away unless the medical professional claims so.

It is advised which you just observe your medical professional often for medical examinations to prevent choice possible problems that may appear while getting therapy. You are going to be approved using a specific dental hygiene, if necessary. Dental specialist may look-out of managing and id malocclusion now. Orthodontia – the main specialization of medication – mainly targets repairing chin problems and teeth, your grin as well as thus your sting. Dentist, however, won’t only do chin remedies and crisis teeth. They also handle tender to severe dental circumstances which may grow to states that are risky. You actually have not got to quantify throughout a predicament your life all. See dental specialist San – Direction Posts, and you’ll notice only but of stunning your smile plenty will soon be.

On the cutting edge

When Jordan Malone’s mother told him his passion for playing with LEGOs might translate into a passion for engineering, the young Denton, Texas, native made it a goal to study engineering at MIT. In the coming years, he committed himself to making that goal a reality — a level of dedication that also earned Malone a bronze medal in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics and a silver medal at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics, for short-track speedskating.  

“Before I ever wanted to be an Olympian, I knew that I wanted to be an engineer. And if you want to be the best, you’ve got to train with the best,” Malone says. The MIT senior studies mechanical engineering and hopes to draw from both his education and his speedskating experiences to improve the sport in the future.

Although Malone set his sights on MIT at an early age, his love for skating took him on a significant detour along the way. He transferred to MIT in 2015 from the University of North Texas after a 25-year career in the sport. Malone had put his engineering education on hold to prepare for the Sochi Winter Olympics, and he officially retired from the sport in 2014.

He now credits his life experiences with enhancing his education at the Institute. “Maybe I was always meant to be an MIT engineer,” Malone says, “and I needed to wait until I was capable.”

“The amount of uncertainty about what I want to do with my life has curved down to null numbers,” he says. “I’m not just here taking courses and gathering credits, I’m here assembling a skill set.”

Meaningful measurements

Malone’s major is Course 2A, which has a customizable curriculum that allows students to home in on their personal interests. This semester, he is enrolled in 2.996 (Advanced Topics in Mechanical Engineering) with professor of mechanical engineering Martin Culpepper. With Culpepper’s guidance and mentorship, Malone is developing a device that more precisely measures the curvatures of the blades used for speedskates. Though such “rocker gauges” already exist, Malone is designing a machine capable of greater precision and accuracy.

When the blade curvatures are off target, there are consequences for skaters on the ice. “If [the curvature] is 0.0003 inches off, when I start getting up to top speeds, I’m like, ‘Something’s wrong!’” Malone says. If it’s off by more: “Mayday! I can’t skate now — just can’t operate.” 

This firsthand experience is an asset for Malone as an engineer. “One of the benefits I have is that I know the problem really well, and I’m learning the engineering that will help me fix that problem. … The need for precision and accuracy has far surpassed the instruments that we use to measure and map the blades.”

As part of his engineering education, Malone is currently enrolled in 2.671 (Go Forth and Measure), a class centered around making accurate and precise measurements in a wide range of applications. “It’s one of the classes that has let me take what I learn in class and apply it immediately toward skating,” Malone says. He enjoys breaking down his project with Culpepper for other undergraduate students in 2.671 who are pursuing projects in different areas. “It’s good to be able to sit down and understand what [knowledge of the problem] I’m taking for granted and what I’m glossing over.”

Part of the problem for skaters, Malone says, involves the way the blades are manufactured and prepared for competition. Currently, blades are shaped by a template, and then individually sharpened by hand by skaters and their coaches.

“The chance of hitting the exact numbers [of curvature needed, by manually sharpening,] are slim to none,” Malone says, “and you’re either going to exhaust yourself or you’re going to have to give up and say, ‘Okay, that’s as good as it’s going to get.’ And the second you step onto the ice, you know in your head it’s not exactly perfect.”

Though Malone is working on improving the instrumental measurements of blades, he also hopes to design a machine that shapes blades accurately and automatically during the manufacturing stage, limiting human error. Malone says he recognizes that the problems he’s tackling aren’t new.

“It’s not like I’m the first person that’s been able to come along and do this, but I’m probably the first person who has a decent enough knowledge of the problem, who has the knowledge of how to fix it, and who cares enough to put myself through the troubles of doing that,” Malone says. “Some of the people who are able to solve problems are just not concerned enough. For me, I have a real, personal stake in it.”

Critical mentorship

Before applying to transfer to the Institute, Malone toured campus with speedskater and MIT alum Hajime Sano ’82. During his visit, Malone met with Anette “Peko” Hosoi, the Neil and Jane Pappalardo Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Alexander Slocum, the Walter M. May and A. Hazel May Professor of Mechanical Engineering.

During his, Malone recalls being asked to perform a back-of-the-envelope calculation for the return-on-investment for solar panel installation, given a few initial parameters. “Nineteen-year-old me would have probably been very scared,” Malone says with a chuckle, “but the 30-year-old me — it made me hungrier.”

One successful calculation and one successful application process later, Malone was enrolled at MIT and sitting in Hosoi’s seminar on sports technology. The course, co-taught by lecturer Christina Chase, led Malone to work further with the two instructors, who have served as his mentors. “They are there to enable you and to provide feedback,” Malone says. “But they definitely won’t hover over you. It’s really good, because that’s my style.”

With the guidance he receives from Culpepper, Hosoi, and Chase, Malone says, “I feel like I have an open door for progress.” Malone notes that this mentorship has helped him focus his interests. “Without guidance, I could go down a thousand different routes, but with the help of a few people, I can limit that to five or 10,” Malone says.


Malone says the resources at MIT for students help enable innovation.

“If you’re looking for help with one thing, you won’t necessarily find it in one spot. You’ll find it in multiple spots,” Malone says as he recalls his current efforts to fund his blade curvature measurement project.  “MIT is about enabling you. They’re not going to hover over you and make sure you get anything done. They’re going to amplify what you choose to get done,” he says.

In the future, Malone hopes to help optimize and implement new wireless athlete-tracking technologies that don’t require wiring and cumbersome installations, unlike currently used technologies such as passive radio-frequency identification tags. He aims to bring this technology to speedskating.
“I think I’m well-suited for that. I speak enough of both languages — to be able to explain to the athletes what’s possible and to be able to explain to the engineers what’s necessary and what’s relevant,” Malone says.

Rock music helps students and educators explore engineering

As far as chance encounters go, the meeting between AnnMarie Thomas ’01 and Damian Kulash, the lead singer for the rock band OK Go, could not have gone better. Thomas and Kulash first met at a coffee shop after a TED conference and later on a flight from Los Angeles to Minneapolis, where Thomas shared details on her research group, the Playful Learning Lab, which helps PK-12 students and educators create fun, hands-on engineering projects.

“The common theme in our lab is a mix of technology, fun, and STEAM education,” Thomas says, referring to science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics. “We’re constantly asking: ‘How can we make education engaging for students and teachers?’”

Kulash was keenly interested, especially since OK Go’s unique, one-take music videos have gained fame for incorporating engineering elements. The band’s 2010 video, “This Too Shall Pass,” created with the help of Media Lab graduates, features a complex Rube Goldberg machine and accumulated more than 58 million views on YouTube.

Thomas and Kulash remained in touch and brainstormed ways to collaborate. The end result is the OK Go Sandbox, a joint effort between the band, the lab, and the engineering departments at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota, where Thomas is an associate professor.

The OK Go Sandbox is an online portal that uses the band’s videos as starting points to explore various STEAM concepts. Each video is accompanied by a series of activities and challenges designed to analyze the video with a problem-solving lens. The challenges for “This Too Shall Pass” focus on simple machines and their role in complex structures.

“We want to give teachers whatever tools they need to connect the joy, wonder, and fun in our videos to the underlying concepts that their students are learning,” Kulash says on the Sandbox site.

Each challenge is heavily influenced by students and educators who have to accompany the challenge video shoots and share their expertise and feedback.

“Every time we film a challenge or activity, there is a teacher on set,” Thomas says. “We don’t know the best way to frame these activities — only the students and teachers really do.”

The Playful Learning Lab was created in 2009, the same year that Minnesota added an engineering curriculum to its state-wide K-12 standards. The lab’s other projects include Circus Engineering, which explores equations of motion for circus aerial acts, and a weekly after-school engineering program for deaf middle school students that recreated the Angry Birds video game using plastic balls and cardboard boxes.

Thomas says her hands-on approach to teaching is thanks in large part to her MIT education, especially Professor Emeritus Woodie Flowers SM ’68, SM ’71, PhD ’73.

“Woodie Flowers’ course 2.007 [Design and Manufacturing] was utterly life changing for me,” says Thomas, who majored in ocean engineering via the Department of Mechanical Engineering while at MIT. “He had an amazing way of getting you to learn by doing. Before that course, I was afraid to build things. After 2.007, it was ‘Eureka! I know it can do it.’”

This story was originally posted on the Slice of MIT blog.

Featured video: MIT’s meteorology pioneers

Born 100 years ago, two extraordinary pioneers of meteorology forever changed our understanding of the atmosphere and its patterns: MIT professors Jule Charney and Edward Lorenz. Beginning in the late 1940s, Charney developed a system of equations capturing important aspects of the atmosphere’s circulation, enabling him to pioneer numerical weather prediction, which we use today. A decade later, Lorenz observed that atmospheric circulation simulations with slightly different initial conditions produced rapidly diverging numerical solutions. This discovery led him to propose that atmospheric dynamics exhibit chaotic behavior, an idea that has since been popularized as “the butterfly effect” and has changed the way we understand the weather and climate.

As MIT professors and department heads, these individuals contributed numerous insights to the field as well as profoundly influenced the next generation of leaders in atmospheric, oceanographic and climate sciences. During their time, Jule Charney and Edward Lorenz left an indelible mark on the field of meteorology, and their legacy lives on within MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences.

Submitted by: EAPS | Video by: Meg Rosenburg | 15 min, 3 sec

Featured video: MIT’s meteorlogy pioneers

Born 100 years ago, two extraordinary pioneers of meteorology forever changed our understanding of the atmosphere and its patterns: MIT professors Jule Charney and Edward Lorenz. Beginning in the late 1940s, Charney developed a system of equations capturing important aspects of the atmosphere’s circulation, enabling him to pioneer numerical weather prediction, which we use today. A decade later, Lorenz observed that atmospheric circulation simulations with slightly different initial conditions produced rapidly diverging numerical solutions. This discovery led him to propose that atmospheric dynamics exhibit chaotic behavior, an idea that has since been popularized as “the butterfly effect” and has changed the way we understand the weather and climate.

As MIT professors and department heads, these individuals contributed numerous insights to the field as well as profoundly influenced the next generation of leaders in atmospheric, oceanographic and climate sciences. During their time, Jule Charney and Edward Lorenz left an indelible mark on the field of meteorology, and their legacy lives on within MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences.

Submitted by: EAPS | Video by: Meg Rosenburg | 15 min, 3 sec

Inaugural class of MIT-GSK Gertrude B. Elion Research Fellows selected

Jay Mahat from the Sharp Lab at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Benjamin Mead from the Shalek Lab at the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Nicholas Struntz from the Koehler Lab at the Koch Institute, and Sarvesh Varma from the Biological Microtechnology and BioMEMS Group at the Research Laboratory of Electronics have been awarded two-year postdoctoral fellowships through the MIT-GSK Gertrude B. Elion Research Fellowship Program for Drug Discovery and Disease.

The fellowship program is a new initiative between MIT and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) that aims to promote basic research while introducing young scientists to key aspects of pharmaceutical research and development. It honors Gertrude Belle Elion (1918-1999), an early leader in the field of chemotherapeutic agents who worked for many years at Burroughs Wellcome, which became Glaxo Wellcome in 1995 and GlaxoSmithKline in 2000. Although Elion never finished a PhD due to her need to work full-time, she eventually received at least 25 honorary doctorate degrees and numerous awards in recognition of her scientific achievements. In 1988, she shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for the discoveries of important principles for drug treatment in developing compounds to treat conditions such as leukemia, viral and bacterial infections, malaria, and gout. In 1991, she was awarded the National Medal of Science and was the first woman inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame, and in 1997, she was awarded the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award for her groundbreaking work in developing therapies for cancer and leukemia.

The Gertrude B. Elion Research Fellows are basic or applied scientists and engineers at MIT who are interested in innovative technology and/or platforms that can enable transformative advances in drug discovery. They will receive funding for salary and benefits, lab supplies, and indirect costs for two years to conduct research in the laboratory of a principal investigator at MIT, and they will have ancillary mentorship from a GSK mentor. A critical component of the program will be ongoing communication and exchange of information amongst the fellow, MIT principal investigator, and GSK mentor.

The next call for applications for the MIT-GSK Gertrude B. Elion Research Fellowship Program for Drug Discovery and Disease will occur in 2019.

AFFOA and VMS launch Advanced Fabrics Entrepreneurship Program

Smart fabrics are poised to change what people expect from their clothing. Promising new fibers and textiles have been developed that can, for instance, connect to the internet, store and convert energy, regulate temperature, monitor health, and change color. And MIT is a leader of this revolution.

In April 2016, the Institute won a bid for $317 million — which consists of $75 million in federal funding and $242 million in nonfederal investments, including large contributions for MIT and the state of Massachusetts — and launched Advanced Functional Fabrics of America (AFFOA). AFFOA is an independent nonprofit company designed to accelerate innovation of U.S.-manufactured smart fibers and textiles. In May 2017, a $2.2 million state grant launched the AFFOA-backed Defense Fabric Discovery Center at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory to serve warfighter functional fabric research and innovation. AFFOA has already released products embodying smart fabric technology, including progammable backpacks and caps.

To further the Institute’s impact, AFFOA has now partnered with MIT Venture Mentoring Service (VMS) to foster a new program that aims to prepare the next generation of smart-fabrics entrepreneurs.

The yearlong Advanced Fabrics Entrepreneurship Program (AFEP) combines AFFOA’s advanced prototyping resources and partnership network of more than 112 organizations with VMS’ mentoring expertise and educational services, to help early-stage entrepreneurs get commercial ventures off the ground. The program will include workshops, lectures, networking events, one-on-one mentoring, and other activities on and around campus.

This week, AFEP launched its inaugural cohort of 24 entrepreneurial teams. The range of participants includes a local former commercial fisherman, members of the armed forces, established entrepreneurs and business owners, college students and researchers from across the nation — and even a team of local eighth-grade students.

“Because initial applications and markets for smart fabrics and textiles have yet to be established, we are casting a wide net,” says Beth Kahn of the MIT Innovation Initiative, who is a key AFEP organizer.

AFEP seeks to inject the nascent smart-fabrics industry with a broad palette of new ideas and an array of consumer applications. This infusion is especially important as consumer demand begins to outpace innovations in the field, says MIT Professor and AFFOA CEO Yoel Fink.

“Consumers want fabrics to move at the speed of digital products. The apparel industry hasn’t kept up with that,” says Fink, a professor of materials science and electrical engineering and a principal investigator at MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE). “We’re creating a system that will spawn a whole bunch of startups around advanced fabrics. Big apparel companies, such as Nike and New Balance, which are partnered with AFFOA, can then see those as opportunities to invest in or to acquire.”

AFFOA’s aim, Fink adds, is to “address the gap where university ends and companies begin. [AFEP] fits neatly into that gap, and I think it’s going to form a fantastic bridge.”

Some of the projects include: printed stretchable batteries, by a team from the University of California at San Diego; a smart bra that can detect early signs of heart disease, by a team from the University of Pennsylvania, University of North Carolina, and MIT; a backpack that alerts users when it’s harmfully overweight, by a team from Swarthmore College; a sensor-equipped fabric steering wheel that aims to reduce distracted driving, by a local former commercial fisherman; a collar for pet tracking, location, and monitoring, by the company Gloucester Innovation; undergarments for soldiers that detect trauma and activate a tourniquet, by a team affiliated with Harvard Business School, West Point, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the U.S. Army; and translucent athletic shoes, by students from Edward Devotion Elementary School in Brookline, Massachusetts.

Participants are expected to travel to required workshops and other events held throughout the year. All AFEP participants must also agree to manufacture only in the United States, which is one of the key pillars of AFFOA’s mission.

Building commercial value

AFEP’s structure is based on the successful MIT Translational Fellows Program (TFP), initiated at the RLE and supported by the VMS, RLE, and MIT Innovation Initiative. The program enrolls postdocs from all MIT schools to learn best practices in translating research from the lab to market. So far, 78 fellows have completed the programs, starting more than a dozen companies raising more than $50 million in additional funding.

TFP postdoc projects have run the gamut, from blockchain technologies to beer-brewing innovations and compact fusion generation. AFEP is open to the broader community and targets ventures in advanced fabrics. The program will include exposure to technical expertise, prototyping, and manufacturing capabilities through AFFOA.

Those activities will emphasize lessons learned, through VMS, TFP, and I-Corps: How to learn from customers, establish beachhead markets, build teams, engage with industry, identify technical and market risks, advance commercialization plans, and meet prospective investors. “At the core it’s about asking, ‘Who wants this and why?” Kahn says. “You may have [a technology] that’s cool, and that’s great, but what problem is it solving?”

“If I want to incorporate new things into fabrics, what impact does that have on the whole value and supply chain? [Those types of] questions help entrepreneurs get a sense of value of their product in terms of dollars,” Kahn says.

Networking and advanced prototyping

The entrepreneurs will interact at AFFOA’s state-of-the-art prototyping facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which was funded, in part, by MIT and the state. Called the Fabric Discovery Center, the world’s first end-to-end prototyping facility comes with advanced computer-assisted design and fabrication tools to help accelerate new advanced fabric ideas from the concept to functional products.

“We’re bringing these folks in who all have ideas, passions, some framework for a company and technology they want to apply to the real world. We’re exposing them to a wealth of technology,” Fink says. “When you take passionate entrepreneurs and connect them with advanced technologies, wonderful things happen.”

Apart from the prototyping facilities, Kahn says, AFFOA will provide the entrepreneurs with a long list of industry connections to leverage for potential customers, partners, or investors — something that could otherwise be challenging in the incipient functional fabrics industry.

“The expectation is entrepreneurs will tap that membership,” Kahn says. “This [program] is going to grease the skids for entrepreneurs, allowing access to something they usually wouldn’t have.”

All AFEP entrepreneurs aren’t expected to launch startups, however, Kahn says. Participants could walk away with patents or licensing agreements, a solid business plan, or simply a detailed marketable idea. Just as long as they’re on the commercialization track, she says: “At the end of the day, we want the entrepreneurs to have a clear path and plan to get their product into practical use.”

Q&A: Composer Tod Machover presents “Philadelphia Voices”

Philadelphia is having an entertaining 2018. The Eagles won the Super Bowl. Villanova rolled to the men’s national college basketball championship. And now, for a culture break, residents can enjoy “Philadelphia Voices,” an ambitious new symphony by acclaimed MIT composer Tod Machover. The piece, which incorporates citizen contributions and the sounds and words of everyday life, is the sixth part of the “City Symphony” series by Machover, who is the Muriel R. Cooper Professor of Music and Media at the MIT Media Lab. The symphony, having made its debut in Philadelphia from April 5-7, will also be performed at New York’s Carnegie Hall on April 10. MIT News spoke with Machover about “Philadelphia Voices.”

Q: What is the “City Symphony” series about, and how does “Philadelphia Voices” fit into it?

A: The City Symphonies have been an attempt to use music to make a portrait of a particular place, [by] combining what we usually think of as music — things that can be played by an orchestra — with actually listening to, recording, and then using the real sounds of the place. That could be parks, traffic, people, birds … anything that conveys the special qualities of the place. Another thing that’s special about these projects has been the call to everyone to participate in making the piece. People are willing to share things through music and sound that they may not be willing to share by having a verbal argument, or a political or social discussion.

When the Philadelphia Orchestra got in touch with me about bringing the City Symphony series to the city, the conductor, Yannick Nézet-Séguin — who is truly remarkable; he’s the conductor in Philadelphia and also the new music director at the Metropolitan Opera, one of the great vocal conductors — said, “Philadelphia has a great vocal tradition, with soloists and choirs around town of all different sorts. So it would be great if you might think about making the voice a central aspect of this piece.” And I loved that idea. It’s not something we had done in the other cities. [Toronto, Edinbugh, Perth, Detroit, and Lucerne.] The idea of voice suggested singing, of course, but it also suggested to me people telling stories and talking about the city. The voice is our most personal instrument.

At that moment, in 2016, with the presidential election in full swing, the division was obvious in the country, and the idea that democracy itself could be challenged was just shocking. Since Philadelphia is the birthplace of American democracy and is the place where the Constitution was written, I thought it would be interesting to have the citizens here [create] a message about democracy to other people around the country and the world. It’s a message about Philadelphia, but also from Philadelphia.

Q: To what extent are you trying to capture well-known things about a city, and how open do you have to be to new ideas as well?

A: In Toronto [the first in the series], I came in with a kind of graphic score that represented what the shape of the piece might be. After Toronto, I felt I had discovered so many surprising things that I made it my goal to start from scratch in every city. But in Philadelphia, because the voice had been suggested to me, and because of this idea of examining democracy, I did come in with ideas.

It turned out to be difficult to get people to talk about democracy directly. Nobody wanted to, except the historians. I did need to develop my “libretto,” so I asked people for words, texts, poems, and I got wonderful material, some through in-person discussions and some through a special mobile app that we developed at the MIT Media Lab. A poet named Jacob Winterstein said, “I think that the most democratic institution in Phildelphia is the block party, because Philadelphia is extremely local.” Most people think of their neighborhood, block, and even building as their unit. When they get together to close off the block and get the permit and cook together and be outside together, that is an amazing social phenomenon, and it happens all over the city. So, he wrote a poem [about] the block party, and I wrote a musical section about what would happen if the whole city had its block parties at the same time and this has become the kind of theme song for the whole symphony. Democracy [can] grow up from the smallest unit and can then unite people in powerful ways.

Q: How does this translate to the music itself?

A: Democracy sounds very abstract, but it is also an emotion and a texture. Music is a very good way of exploring how societies feel. In an orchestra, you may have 100 people, but after all, there’s a conductor there, and a composer writes the music, and it’s not necessarily the most democratic idea in the world. In some ways, you can think of a traditional orchestra and score being more like a monarchy. It grew out of a European society where things are directed from the top. You could think of jazz music, which is a very American form, as a kind of freedom. Everbody has a basic text but they go their own way and come back.

But [with] 100-plus people in the orchestra and 250-plus in the chorus, you can’t let everybody just do what they want. So in this piece, I’ve tried to explore what happens in between: The sixth movement is actually called “Democracy,” and with a group of 20 singers, we asked them to come up with a way of singing the word “Philadelphia” that says something about themselves, and also says something about what they feel about Philadelphia. They start out on their own, and then they overlap, and the orchestra imitates them, and everybody has to listen to each other.

There’s a moment where the conductor steps aside and lets the orchestra and the chorus follow these individual songs. And to me, it’s a feeling of democracy, in a messy city like Philadelphia which is wonderfully vibrant, but where not everybody is following the same tune, and not everybody is following the conductor. You feel the individuality of each of these choruses and of the individual singers, representing the kind of democracy — and the kind of listening to each other — that is most needed right now.

Q: “Philadelphia Voices” has just received its world premiere performances in Philadelphia, and is on its way to Carnegie Hall. How did the performances go, and how did the public react?

A: It was extremely gratifying to see the many parts of this complex project — orchestra, voices, soundscapes, texts, and electronics diffused through a specially designed sound system — come together so fluidly, and it was especially striking to see such a large chorus of people from all around Philly sing together as one diverse musical community. I was also wonderfully surprised to see the audience react viscerally and vocally at each performance, responding actively to the humor, the sonic and verbal references, and also to the harsher realities presented. Many people told me that the work captured Philadelphia in an uncanny way, and the Philadelphia Inquirer wrote: “The powerful … fifth movement, ‘My house is full of black people’ … is music that could change hearts and minds in Philadelphia.”

And hopefully beyond. We’ll see what happens when we get to Carnegie Hall!

Celebrating 50 years of transatlantic geodetic radio science

Fifty years ago this week, in April 1968, a historic event took place involving MIT Haystack Observatory radio telescope in Westford, Massachusetts, and its counterpart at Onsala Space Observatory in Onsala, Sweden: the first transatlantic geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations.

Geodesy is the science of measuring and analyzing the Earth’s shape, orientation in space, and gravity field, which enables the detection of geophysical signals such as global sea level rise, polar ice loss, and plate tectonic motions with unparalleled accuracy. Prominent space geodetic techniques include GPS and VLBI. Astronomical VLBI involves using multiple radio antennas spaced across the globe to image distant objects such as black holes (as in the Event Horizon Telescope black hole project); geodetic VLBI to monitor changes on our planet by measuring the telescopes position over time; both rely on the time difference between when antennas receive signals from extragalactic radio sources.

This occasion marks an important anniversary in geodesy; although the April observations were not entirely successful in terms of usable data, as VLBI was in its very earliest days, it was the first time that geodetic VLBI was performed across the Atlantic. Successful VLBI work was first completed in 1967 between several groups, including Haystack and the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia — one of several collaborations honored with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1971 Rumford Award.

Today, NASA’s Space Geodesy Project (SGP) operates a worldwide system of modern geodetic sites, including the broadband VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System) network, in collaboration with international partners around the globe.

As part of current innovative VGOS development efforts, MIT Haystack Observatory and Onsala Space Observatory will be making regularly scheduled observations this week that happen to align with the historic events of April 1968. The two observatories are celebrating the occasion on Thursday, April 5, to honor the scientists and engineers in the U.S. and Sweden who made such achievements possible and helped launch decades of successful VLBI experiments worldwide.

Several scientists and engineers who contributed to the early VLBI development are still working today, including Alan Whitney of MIT Haystack Observatory and Jim Moran of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Whitney describes the confidence of the early VLBI pioneers:

“There was really no doubt that the concept [of VLBI] was sound, and it was a matter of implementing it properly. And there was a lot of confidence that it could be done, but with the realization that it would take quite a bit of effort and probably several tries before we got it right. I always felt optimistic about the potential for VLBI. There’s still a lot more to do in terms of improving the techniques; we’re going to learn a lot more as the VGOS system is deployed worldwide.”

Scientists developing the pioneering VLBI techniques in the late 1960s remember it as an exciting period in their careers, including such details as the difficulties of recording data on numerous half-inch magnetic tapes, which held 16 megabytes on a 12-inch reel, lasted for about three minutes of observations, and presented many technical challenges. An experiment might cover hundreds or thousands of tape reels. Technology for correlation and data recording has progressed immensely since 1968 — the current equivalent recorder, called the Mark 6, holds up to 32 terabytes and would fill the tape used in the 1960s in about 8 milliseconds — and shows no signs of slowing over the next decades. As Jim Moran says, “There is a press for increased bandwidth: There are tremendous possibilities for pushing the boundaries of VLBI. It is still a very rich field. It’s amazing that we’re continuously observing in VLBI 50 years later.”

Observatories in NASA SGP’s VGOS network are looking forward with particular enthusiasm to this week’s observations.

Featured video: Celebrating the arts at MIT

What makes the arts such a vital part of MIT? A creative culture where experimentation and innovation cross all disciplines and break all boundaries. More than half of all undergraduates expand their horizons by enrolling in arts classes each year, on a campus that features more than 3,500 noted works of contemporary art and landmark buildings designed by legendary architects like Frank Gehry and I.M. Pei.

Since the 1960s, MIT has been forging connections between the fields of science and engineering and the worlds of visual and performing arts. From the founding of the Center for Art, Science and Technology (CAST) to the opening of a new performance space for our preeminent prominent music and theater program to the planned relocation and expansion of the MIT Museum, investment in the arts at MIT has never been stronger.

The arts have been an essential part of the MIT culture from the start. Our School of Architecture and Planning, founded in 1865, was the first architecture program in the United States and remains at the forefront of design innovation today. In 1967, Bauhaus artist György Kepes created the Center for Advanced Visual Studies to bring together artists, scientists, and engineers and to pioneer the use of new technology as an artistic medium. The legacy of those collaborations continues through the Media Lab, Program in Art, Culture and Technology, Comparative Media Studies and CAST. The List Visual Arts Center, founded in 1985, is one of the region’s most esteemed venues for cutting-edge contemporary art exhibitions. In the performing arts, two professors of music hold the highest honor awarded to MIT faculty, Institute Professor; the award-winning faculty in the School of Humanties, Arts, and Social Sciences provide conservatory-level training and compose, commission, and perform classical, contemporary, and world music.

With over 25 majors, minors and degree programs; hands-on classes; makerspaces; and 100-plus concerts and exhibitions open to the public each year, there are more ways than ever for the campus community to express itself through the arts at MIT.

Submitted by: Arts at MIT | Video by: Arts at MIT and Trillium Studios | 1 min, 49 sec

Lessons in NASA leadership

“It was a Friday afternoon, cell phone rings, and the caller ID says ‘unknown,’” recalled Dava Newman, MIT Apollo Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics. When she took the call, the voice on the other end said, “This is the White House.” A staffer was calling to notify Newman that she was being nominated for the position of NASA deputy administrator — the number 2 position at the national space agency. Initially, Newman thought it was a joke, perhaps perpetrated by one of her students. After doing a quick online search for “White House Office of Presidential Personnel,” however, she realized it was, indeed, a legitimate call to service on behalf of the president of the United States.

Agreeing to take on the position was an easy one for an engineer and professor who had already honed her leadership skills in several roles at MIT and on national boards — and for someone who even had experience teaching leadership development.

Newman and Ellen Ochoa, a retired astronaut and the director of NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, recounted this and other anecdotes about their journeys in NASA leadership at a recent MIT symposium, “Leading Human Space Exploration,” co-sponsored by the MIT Gordon Engineering Leadership Program (GELP) and the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AeroAstro). The discussion was moderated by David Niño, GELP senior lecturer, and centered on what prepared these engineers for leading roles in human space exploration, as well as where NASA is heading as an institution.

Newman and Ochoa explained how they began college with very different career destinations in mind. Ochoa, an avid flute-player, wanted to major in music or business, while Newman had visions of becoming a lawyer, representing top basketball players. Music and sports were their respective passions, but thanks to a few pivotal relationships in their lives, they began research projects and careers that, over time, defined their destinies in advancing human space exploration.

“You make a lot of connections when you are interested in a variety of different things,” said Ochoa, a physics major at San Diego State University who went on to earn a doctorate in electrical engineering from Stanford University before joining NASA as an astronaut candidate. In 1993, Ochoa became the first Latin American woman in space when she flew on the space shuttle Discovery in the first of four spaceflights. In 2007, after logging close to 1,000 hours in space, Ochoa retired as an astronaut, and moved into a leadership position as deputy director of JSC. She eventually became director of the center, NASA’s “Mission Control” facility that trains astronauts, manages in-flight operations for human space missions, and develops the next generation of piloted spacecraft.

Newman, who earned an aerospace bachelor’s at Notre Dame followed by two master’s — one in AeroAstro and one in technology and policy — and a PhD in AeroAstro from MIT, did heed the White House call and was confirmed as NASA deputy administrator in 2015. She remained in that position through the end of the Obama administration, returning to her research and teaching roles at MIT in January 2017.

During the discussion, Niño highlighted some of the opportunities available to MIT engineering students that help them identify and hone their own leadership skills. Ochoa expressed admiration for a program with such an express focus on leadership training for engineers. “I don’t recall ever even hearing the word leadership as part my graduate school experience,” Ochoa said. “Leadership provides an ability to influence the things that you care most about.” Meanwhile, Newman emphasized the importance developing and practicing skills such as negotiating, listening, inventing, and collaborating.

The future of NASA, as these leaders see it, will rely in large part on these very skills as NASA builds the international partnerships that will become central to advancing deep space human exploration. “NASA’s future is very bright,” explained Newman. “Its responsibilities will increase among those agencies that are central to U.S. leadership in science and technology.”

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