People Should Find A Safe Storm Shelter During Thunderstorm

Storm Shelters in OKC

Tuesday June 5, 2001 marked the start of an extremely fascinating time in the annals of my cherished Houston. Tropical storm Allison, that early summer daytime came to see. The thunderstorm went rapidly, although there was Tuesday. Friday, afterward arrived, and Allison returned. This time going slowly, this time in the north. The thunderstorm became still. Thousands of people driven from their houses. Only when they might be desired most, several leading hospitals shut. Dozens of important surface roads, and every important highway covered in water that was high.

Yet even prior to the rain stopped, service to others, and narratives of Christian compassion started to be composed. For a couples class, about 75 people had assembled at Lakewood Church among the greatest nondenominational churches in The United States. From time they got ready to depart the waters had climbed so high they were stranded. The facility of Lakewood stayed dry and high at the center of among the hardest hit parts of town. Refugees in the powerful thunderstorm started arriving at their doorstep. Without no advance preparation, and demand of official sanction, those 75 classmates started a calamity shelter that grew to hold over 3,000 customers. The greatest of over 30 refuges that could be established in the height of the thunderstorm.

Where help was doled out to those who’d suffered losses after Lakewood functioned as a Red Cross Service Center. When it became clear that FEMA aid, and Red Cross wouldn’t bring aid enough, Lakewood and Second Baptist joined -Houston to produce an adopt a family plan to greatly help get folks on their feet quicker. In the occasions that followed militaries of Christians arrived in both churches. From all over town, people of economical standing, race, and each and every denomination collected. Wet rotted carpeting were pulled up, sheet stone removed. Piles of clothes donated food and bed clothes were doled out. Elbow grease and cleaning equipment were used to start eliminating traces of the damage.

It would have been an excellent example of practical ministry in a period of disaster, in the event the story stopped here, but it continues. A great many other churches functioned as shelters as well as in the occasions that followed Red Cross Service Centers. Tons of new volunteers, a lot of them Christians put to work, and were put through accelerated training. That Saturday, I used to be trapped in my own, personal subdivision. Particular that my family was safe because I worked in Storm Shelters OKC that was near where I used to live. What they wouldn’t permit the storm to do, is take their demand to give their religion, or their self respect. I saw so a lot of people as they brought gifts of food, clothes and bedclothes, praising the Lord. I saw young kids coming making use of their parents to not give new, rarely used toys to kids who had none.

Leaning On God Through Hard Times

Unity Church of Christianity from a location across town impacted by the storm sent a sizable way to obtain bedding as well as other supplies. A tiny troupe of musicians and Christian clowns requested to be permitted to amuse the kids in the shelter where I served and arrived. We of course promptly taken their offer. The kids were collected by them in a sizable empty space of flooring. They sang, they told stories, balloon animals were made by them. The kids, frightened, at least briefly displaced laughed.

When not occupied elsewhere I did lots of listening. I listened to survivors that were disappointed, and frustrated relief workers. I listened to kids make an effort to take advantage of a scenario they could not comprehend. All these are only the stories I have heard or seen. I am aware that spiritual groups, Churches, and lots of other individual Christians functioned admirably. I do need to thank them for the attempts in disaster. I thank The Lord for supplying them to serve.

I didn’t write its individuals, or this which means you’d feel sorry for Houston. As this disaster unfolded yet what I saw encouraged my beliefs the Lord will provide through our brothers and sisters in religion for us. Regardless how awful your community hits, you the individual Christian can be a part of the remedy. Those blankets you can probably never use, and have stored away mean much to people who have none. You are able to help in the event that you can drive. You are able to help if you’re able to create a cot. It is possible to help in the event that you can scrub a wall. It is possible to help if all you are able to do is sit and listen. Large catastrophes like Allison get lots of focus. However a disaster can come in virtually any size. That is a serious disaster to your family that called it home in case a single household burns. It is going to be generations prior to the folks here forget Allison.

United States Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities

Firms investing in this sector can research, develop and create, as well as appreciate the edges of a global gas and oil portfolio with no political and economical disadvantages. Allowing regime and the US financial conditions is rated amongst the world and the petroleum made in US is sold at costs that were international. The firms will likely gain as US also has a national market that is booming. Where 500 exploration wells are drilled most of the petroleum exploration in US continues to be concentrated around the Taranaki Basin. On the other hand, the US sedimentary basins still remain unexplored and many show existence of petroleum seeps and arrangements were also unveiled by the investigation data with high hydrocarbon potential. There have already been onshore gas discoveries before including Great south river basins, East Coast Basin and offshore Canterbury.

As interest in petroleum is expected to grow strongly during this interval but this doesn’t automatically dim the bright future expectations in this sector. The interest in petroleum is anticipated to reach 338 PJ per annum. The US government is eager to augment the gas and oil supply. As new discoveries in this sector are required to carry through the national demand at the same time as raise the amount of self reliance and minimize the cost on imports of petroleum the Gas and Oil exploration sector is thought to be among the dawn sectors. The US government has invented a distinctive approach to reach its petroleum and gas exploration targets. It’s developed a “Benefit For Attempt” model for Petroleum and Gas exploration tasks in US.

The “Benefit For Attempt” in today’s analytic thinking is defined as oil reserves found per kilometer drilled. It will help in deriving the estimate of reservations drilled for dollar and each kilometer spent for each investigation. The authorities of US has revealed considerable signs that it’ll bring positive effects of change which will favor investigation of new oil reserves since the price of investigation has adverse effects on investigation task. The Authorities of US has made the information accessible about the oil potential in its study report. Foil of advice in royalty and allocation regimes, and simplicity of processes have enhanced the attractiveness of Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector in the United States.

Petroleum was the third biggest export earner in 2008 for US and the chance to to keep up the growth of the sector is broadly accessible by manners of investigation endeavors that are new. The government is poised to keep the impetus in this sector. Now many firms are active with new exploration jobs in the Challenger Plateau of the United States, Northland East Slope Basin region, outer Taranaki Basin, and Bellona Trough region. The 89 Energy oil and gas sector guarantees foreign investors as government to high increase has declared a five year continuance of an exemption for offshore petroleum and gas exploration in its 2009 budget. The authorities provide nonresident rig operators with tax breaks.

Modern Robot Duct Cleaning Uses

AC systems, and heat, venting collect pollutants and contaminants like mold, debris, dust and bacteria that can have an adverse impact on indoor air quality. Most folks are at present aware that indoor air pollution could be a health concern and increased visibility has been thus gained by the area. Studies have also suggested cleaning their efficacy enhances and is contributory to a longer operating life, along with maintenance and energy cost savings. The cleaning of the parts of forced air systems of heat, venting and cooling system is what’s called duct cleaning. Robots are an advantageous tool raising the price and efficacy facets of the procedure. Therefore, using modern robot duct isn’t any longer a new practice.

A cleaner, healthier indoor environment is created by a clean air duct system which lowers energy prices and increases efficiency. As we spend more hours inside air duct cleaning has become an important variable in the cleaning sector. Indoor pollutant levels can increase. Health effects can show years or up immediately after repeated or long exposure. These effects range from some respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer that can be deadly or debilitating. Therefore, it’s wise to ensure indoor air quality isn’t endangered inside buildings. Dangerous pollutants that can found in inside can transcend outdoor air pollutants in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency.

Duct cleaning from Air Duct Cleaning Edmond professionals removes microbial contaminants, that might not be visible to the naked eye together with both observable contaminants. Indoor air quality cans impact and present a health hazard. Air ducts can be host to a number of health hazard microbial agents. Legionnaires Disease is one malaise that’s got public notice as our modern surroundings supports the development of the bacteria that has the potential to cause outbreaks and causes the affliction. Typical disorder-causing surroundings contain wetness producing gear such as those in air conditioned buildings with cooling towers that are badly maintained. In summary, in building and designing systems to control our surroundings, we’ve created conditions that were perfect . Those systems must be correctly tracked and preserved. That’s the secret to controlling this disorder.

Robots allow for the occupation while saving workers from exposure to be done faster. Signs of the technological progress in the duct cleaning business is apparent in the variety of gear now available for example, array of robotic gear, to be used in air duct cleaning. Robots are priceless in hard to reach places. Robots used to see states inside the duct, now may be used for spraying, cleaning and sampling procedures. The remote controlled robotic gear can be fitted with practical and fastener characteristics to reach many different use functions.

Video recorders and a closed circuit television camera system can be attached to the robotic gear to view states and operations and for documentation purposes. Inside ducts are inspected by review apparatus in the robot. Robots traveling to particular sections of the system and can move around barriers. Some join functions that empower cleaning operation and instruction manual and fit into little ducts. An useful view range can be delivered by them with models delivering disinfection, cleaning, review, coating and sealing abilities economically.

The remote controlled robotic gear comes in various sizes and shapes for different uses. Of robotic video cameras the first use was in the 80s to record states inside the duct. Robotic cleaning systems have a lot more uses. These devices provide improved accessibility for better cleaning and reduce labor costs. Lately, functions have been expanded by areas for the use of small mobile robots in the service industries, including uses for review and duct cleaning.

More improvements are being considered to make a tool that was productive even more effective. If you determine to have your ventilation, heat and cooling system cleaned, it’s important to make sure all parts of the system clean and is qualified to achieve this. Failure to clean one part of a contaminated system can lead to re-contamination of the entire system.

When To Call A DWI Attorney

Charges or fees against a DWI offender need a legal Sugar Land criminal defense attorney that is qualified dismiss or so that you can reduce charges or the fees. So, undoubtedly a DWI attorney is needed by everyone. Even if it’s a first-time violation the penalties can be severe being represented by a DWI attorney that is qualified is vitally significant. If you’re facing following charges for DWI subsequently the punishments can contain felony charges and be severe. Locating an excellent attorney is thus a job you should approach when possible.

So you must bear in mind that you just should hire a DWI attorney who practices within the state where the violation occurred every state within America will make its laws and legislation regarding DWI violations. It is because they are going to have the knowledge and expertise of state law that is relevant to sufficiently defend you and will be knowledgeable about the processes and evaluations performed to establish your guilt.

As your attorney they are going to look to the evaluations that have been completed at the time of your arrest and the authorities evidence that is accompanying to assess whether or not these evaluations were accurately performed, carried out by competent staff and if the right processes where followed. It isn’t often that a police testimony is asserted against, although authorities testimony also can be challenged in court.

You should attempt to locate someone who specializes in these kind of cases when you start trying to find a DWI attorney. Whilst many attorneys may be willing to consider on your case, a lawyer who specializes in these cases is required by the skilled knowledge needed to interpret the scientific and medical evaluations ran when you had been detained. The first consultation is free and provides you with the chance to to inquire further about their experience in fees and these cases.

Many attorneys will work according into a fee that is hourly or on a set fee basis determined by the kind of case. You may find how they have been paid to satisfy your financial situation and you will have the capacity to negotiate the conditions of their fee. If you are unable to afford to hire an attorney that is private you then can request a court-appointed attorney paid for by the state. Before you hire a DWI attorney you should make sure when you might be expected to appear in court and you understand the precise charges imposed against you.

How Credit Card Works

The credit card is making your life more easy, supplying an amazing set of options. The credit card is a retail trade settlement; a credit system worked through the little plastic card which bears its name. Regulated by ISO 7810 defines credit cards the actual card itself consistently chooses the same structure, size and contour. A strip of a special stuff on the card (the substance resembles the floppy disk or a magnetic group) is saving all the necessary data. This magnetic strip enables the credit card’s validation. The layout has become an important variable; an enticing credit card layout is essential in ensuring advice and its dependability keeping properties.

A credit card is supplied to the user just after a bank approves an account, estimating a varied variety of variables to ascertain fiscal dependability. This bank is the credit supplier. When a purchase is being made by an individual, he must sign a receipt to verify the trade. There are the card details, and the amount of cash to be paid. You can find many shops that take electronic authority for the credit cards and use cloud tokenization for authorization. Nearly all verification are made using a digital verification system; it enables assessing the card is not invalid. If the customer has enough cash to insure the purchase he could be attempting to make staying on his credit limit any retailer may also check.

As the credit supplier, it is as much as the banks to keep the user informed of his statement. They typically send monthly statements detailing each trade procedures through the outstanding fees, the card and the sums owed. This enables the cardholder to ensure all the payments are right, and to discover mistakes or fraudulent action to dispute. Interest is typically charging and establishes a minimal repayment amount by the end of the following billing cycle.

The precise way the interest is charged is normally set within an initial understanding. On the rear of the credit card statement these elements are specified by the supplier. Generally, the credit card is an easy type of revolving credit from one month to another. It can also be a classy financial instrument, having many balance sections to afford a greater extent for credit management. Interest rates may also be not the same as one card to another. The credit card promotion services are using some appealing incentives find some new ones along the way and to keep their customers.

Why Get Help From A Property Management?

One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the revenue of your rental home would be to engage and contact property management in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. If you wish to know more and are considering the product please browse the remainder of the post. Leasing out your bit of real property may be real cash-cow as many landlords understand, but that cash flow usually includes a tremendous concern. Night phones from tenants that have the trouble of marketing the house if you own an emptiness just take out lots of the pleasure of earning money off of leases, overdue lease payments which you must chase down, as well as over-flowing lavatories. One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the earnings would be to engage a property management organization.

These businesses perform as the go between for the tenant as well as you. The tenant will not actually need to understand who you’re when you hire a property management company. The company manages the day to day while you still possess the ability to help make the final judgements in regards to the home relationships using the tenant. The company may manage the marketing for you personally, for those who are in possession of a unit that is vacant. Since the company is going to have more connections in a bigger market than you’ve got along with the industry than you are doing, you’ll discover your device gets stuffed a whole lot more quickly making use of their aid. In addition, the property management company may care for testing prospective tenants. With regards to the arrangement you’ve got, you might nevertheless not be unable to get the last say regarding if a tenant is qualified for the the system, but of locating a suitable tenant, the day-to-day difficulty is not any longer your problem. They’ll also manage the before-move-in the reviews as well as reviews required following a tenant moves away.

It is possible to step back watching the profits, after the the system is stuffed. Communicating will be handled by the company with all the tenant if you have an issue. You won’t be telephoned if this pipe explosions at the center of the night time. Your consultant is called by the tenant in the company, who then makes the preparations that are required to get the issue repaired with a care supplier. You get a phone call a day later or may not know there was an issue before you register using the business. The property management organization may also make your leasing obligations to to get. The company will do what’s required to accumulate if your tenant is making a payment. In certain arrangements, the organization is going to also take-over paying taxation, insurance, and the mortgage on the portion of property. You actually need to do-nothing but appreciate after after all the the invoices are paid, the revenue which is sent your way.

With all the advantages, you’re probably questioning exactly what to employing a property management organization, the downside should be. From hiring one the primary variable that stops some landlords is the price. All these providers will be paid for by you. The price must be weighed by you from the time frame you’ll save time that you may subsequently use to follow additional revenue-producing efforts or just take pleasure in the fruits of your expense work.

Benifits From An Orthodontic Care

Orthodontics is the specialty of dentistry centered on the identification and treatment of dental and related facial problems. The outcomes of Norman Orthodontist OKC treatment could be dramatic — an advanced quality of life for a lot of individuals of ages and lovely grins, improved oral health health, aesthetics and increased cosmetic tranquility. Whether into a look dentistry attention is needed or not is an individual’s own choice. Situations are tolerated by most folks like totally various kinds of bite issues or over bites and don’t get treated. Nevertheless, a number people sense guaranteed with teeth that are correctly aligned, appealing and simpler. Dentistry attention may enhance construct and appearance power. It jointly might work with you consult with clearness or to gnaw on greater.

Orthodontic attention isn’t only decorative in character. It might also gain long term oral health health. Right, correctly aligned teeth is not more difficult to floss and clean. This may ease and decrease the risk of rot. It may also quit periodontists irritation that problems gums. Periodontists might finish in disease, that occurs once micro-organism bunch round your house where the teeth and the gums meet. Periodontists can be ended in by untreated periodontists. Such an unhealthiness result in enamel reduction and may ruin bone that surrounds the teeth. Less may be chewed by people who have stings that are harmful with efficacy. A few of us using a serious bite down side might have difficulties obtaining enough nutrients. Once the teeth aren’t aimed correctly, this somewhat might happen. Morsel issues that are repairing may allow it to be more easy to chew and digest meals.

One may also have language problems, when the top and lower front teeth do not arrange right. All these are fixed through therapy, occasionally combined with medical help. Eventually, remedy may ease to avoid early use of rear areas. Your teeth grow to an unlikely quantity of pressure, as you chew down. In case your top teeth do not match it’ll trigger your teeth that are back to degrade. The most frequently encountered type of therapy is the braces (or retainer) and head-gear. But, a lot people complain about suffering with this technique that, unfortunately, is also unavoidable. Sport braces damages, as well as additional individuals have problem in talking. Dental practitioners, though, state several days can be normally disappeared throughout by the hurting. Occasionally annoyance is caused by them. In the event that you’d like to to quit more unpleasant senses, fresh, soft and tedious food must be avoided by you. In addition, tend not to take your braces away unless the medical professional claims so.

It is advised which you just observe your medical professional often for medical examinations to prevent choice possible problems that may appear while getting therapy. You are going to be approved using a specific dental hygiene, if necessary. Dental specialist may look-out of managing and id malocclusion now. Orthodontia – the main specialization of medication – mainly targets repairing chin problems and teeth, your grin as well as thus your sting. Dentist, however, won’t only do chin remedies and crisis teeth. They also handle tender to severe dental circumstances which may grow to states that are risky. You actually have not got to quantify throughout a predicament your life all. See dental specialist San – Direction Posts, and you’ll notice only but of stunning your smile plenty will soon be.

3Q: Aleksander Madry on building trustworthy artificial intelligence

Machine learning algorithms now underlie much of the software we use, helping to personalize our news feeds and finish our thoughts before we’re done typing. But as artificial intelligence becomes further embedded in daily life, expectations have risen. Before autonomous systems fully gain our confidence, we need to know they are reliable in most situations and can withstand outside interference; in engineering terms, that they are robust. We also need to understand the reasoning behind their decisions; that they are interpretable.

Aleksander Madry, an associate professor of computer science at MIT and a lead faculty member of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL)’s Trustworthy AI initiative, compares AI to a sharp knife, a useful but potentially-hazardous tool that society must learn to weild properly. Madry recently spoke at MIT’s Symposium on Robust, Interpretable AI, an event co-sponsored by the MIT Quest for Intelligence and CSAIL, and held Nov. 20 in Singleton Auditorium. The symposium was designed to showcase new MIT work in the area of building guarantees into AI, which has almost become a branch of machine learning in its own right. Six faculty members spoke about their research, 40 students presented posters, and Madry opened the symposium with a talk the aptly titled, “Robustness and Interpretability.” We spoke with Madry, a leader in this emerging field, about some of the key ideas raised during the event.

Q: AI owes much of its recent progress to deep learning, a branch of machine learning that has significantly improved the ability of algorithms to pick out patterns in text, images and sounds, giving us automated assistants like Siri and Alexa, among other things. But deep learning systems remain vulnerable in surprising ways: stumbling when they encounter slightly unfamiliar examples in the real world or when a malicious attacker feeds it subtly-altered images. How are you and others trying to make AI more robust?

A: Until recently, AI researchers focused simply on getting machine-learning algorithms to accomplish basic tasks. Achieving even average-case performance was a major challenge. Now that performance has improved, attention has shifted to the next hurdle: improving the worst-case performance. Most of my research is focused on meeting this challenge. Specifically, I work on developing next-generation machine-learning systems that will be reliable and secure enough for mission-critical applications like self-driving cars and software that filters malicious contentWe’re currently building tools to train object-recognition systems to identify what’s happening in a scene or picture, even if the images fed to the model have been manipulated. We are also studying the limits of systems that offer security and reliability guarantees. How much reliability and security can we build into machine-learning models, and what other features might we need to sacrifice to get there?

My colleague Luca Daniel, who also spoke, is working on an important aspect of this problem: developing a way to measure the resilience of a deep learning system in key situations. Decisions made by deep learning systems have major consequences, and thus it’s essential that end-users be able to measure the reliability of each of the model’s outputs. Another way to make a system more robust is during the training process. In her talk, “Robustness in GANs and in Black-box Optimization,” Stefanie Jegelka showed how the learner in a generative adversarial network, or GAN, can be made to withstand manipulations to its input, leading to much better performance. 

Q: The neural networks that power deep learning seem to learn almost effortlessly: Feed them enough data and they can outperform humans at many tasks. And yet, we’ve also seen how easily they can fail, with at least three widely publicized cases of self-driving cars crashing and killing someone. AI applications in health care are not yet under the same level of scrutiny but the stakes are just as high. David Sontag focused his talk on the often life-or-death consequences when an AI system lacks robustness. What are some of the red flags when training an AI on patient medical records and other observational data?

A: This goes back to the nature of guarantees and the underlying assumptions that we build into our models. We often assume that our training datasets are representative of the real-world data we test our models on — an assumption that tends to be too optimistic. Sontag gave two examples of flawed assumptions baked into the training process that could lead an AI to give the wrong diagnosis or recommend a harmful treatment. The first focused on a massive database of patient X-rays released last year by the National Institutes of Health. The dataset was expected to bring big improvements to the automated diagnosis of lung disease until a skeptical radiologist took a closer look and found widespread errors in the scans’ diagnostic labels. An AI trained on chest scans with a lot of incorrect labels is going to have a hard time generating accurate diagnoses. 

A second problem Sontag cited is the failure to correct for gaps and irregularities in the data due to system glitches or changes in how hospitals and health care providers report patient data. For example, a major disaster could limit the amount of data available for emergency room patients. If a machine-learning model failed to take that shift into account its predictions would not be very reliable.

Q: You’ve covered some of the techniques for making AI more reliable and secure. What about interpretability? What makes neural networks so hard to interpret, and how are engineers developing ways to peer beneath the hood?

A: Understanding neural-network predictions is notoriously difficult. Each prediction arises from a web of decisions made by hundreds to thousands of individual nodes. We are trying to develop new methods to make this process more transparent. In the field of computer vision one of the pioneers is Antonio Torralba, director of The Quest. In his talk, he demonstrated a new tool developed in his lab that highlights the features that a neural network is focusing on as it interprets a scene. The tool lets you identify the nodes in the network responsible for recognizing, say, a door, from a set of windows or a stand of trees. Visualizing the object-recognition process allows software developers to get a more fine-grained understanding of how the network learns. 

Another way to achieve interpretability is to precisely define the properties that make the model understandable, and then train the model to find that type of solution. Tommi Jaakkola showed in his talk, “Interpretability and Functional Transparency,” that models can be trained to be linear or have other desired qualities locally while maintaining the network’s overall flexibility. Explanations are needed at different levels of resolution much as they are in interpreting physical phenomena. Of course, there’s a cost to building guarantees into machine-learning systems — this is a theme that carried through all the talks. But those guarantees are necessary and not insurmountable. The beauty of human intelligence is that while we can’t perform most tasks perfectly, as a machine might, we have the ability and flexibility to learn in a remarkable range of environments. 

Q&A: Roger Conover on a lifetime in publishing

After four decades at the MIT Press, Roger Conover will be stepping down from his full-time role as executive editor for art and architecture. During his extraordinary tenure, Conover’s curatorial vision has had an enormous impact on the publishing world and on the shape of writing about art. Craig Dworkin, author of “No Medium” and editor of “Language to Cover a Page: The Early Writings of Vito Acconci,” recently sat down with Conover to talk about his long career.

Q: I wanted to start by asking how you made your way from literature to the visual arts. At the beginning of the 1970s, you were a published poet — having won an award from the Academy of American Poets and been granted a fellowship to spend time writing poetry in Ireland. In fact, you were cited by Hart Crane’s biographer, John Unterecker, as one of the promising young poets of your generation, along with Paul Muldoon and Gregory Orr. That was in 1973. You also went to graduate school in English, were a licensed lobsterfisherman, and briefly worked in theater.  But by the end of the decade you were the editor of art and architecture books for MIT Press. How did that happen?

A: The answer is a bit circuitous, but I’ll try my best. For two years in the early 1970s I lived in Ireland, thanks to a fellowship from the Watson Foundation: one year in Donegal, part of it spent commuting to the Yeats school in Sligo, and the second year in Dublin, where I met a number of poet-editors. I went there to channel [W.B.] Yeats, but by the time I left, it was much more about [Samuel] Beckett and [James] Joyce (by way of [Seamus] Heaney, [Charles Edward] Montague, [W.P.] Kinsella, [Derek] Mahon). When the grant was up I bought the cheapest ticket I could find back to the States: Dublin to Boston. I had the typical English major’s resume plus some poems published in Ireland and Wales. There weren’t many literary publishing houses in Boston, but there were a few. I sent my resume to all of them — Godine, Atlantic, Houghton-Mifflin, Little-Brown — with a cringeworthy cover letter recalling T.S. Eliot quitting his bank job to work for Faber and Faber, who in 1925 sought an editor “who combines literary gifts with business instincts.” In retrospect, I guess I can say that the only comparison is durational: We both stayed in our editorial positions for over 40 years. And that every editor makes mistakes; Eliot famously turned down Orwell’s “Animal Farm,” and I turned down too many good books to mention.  

[There were] no publishing offers for the latest poetry arrival in Boston. So I became a “Kelly Girl”, a.k.a. a “temporary office worker” for Kelly Services, shifting from venue to venue making an hourly wage as a typist. I had never taken an art or architecture class, but I had taken a typing class in high school, and in the long arc of chance, that had as much as anything else to do with how I got the MIT Press position. We used Selectric typewriters in those days, with those redemptive self-correction ribbons. I had once won a boys’ typewriting competition in high school. So one day I’m asked by Kelly Services to show up at a firm called The Architects’ Collaborative [TAC]. I don’t know if I was told that this was the firm founded by Walter Gropius when he left the Bauhaus (which he had also founded) to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, but this would not have meant anything to me at the time. I had never taken an art or architecture class. I typed there for a few months, then I was offered a full-time job as a writer/editor in the graphic design department. Gropius was dead by then, but Ise Gropius would make an appearance now and then, and I got to know most of the other founding principals: Norman Fletcher, John Harkness, Sarah Harkness, and Louis McMillan were all still working there then.  

One day an ad appears in The Boston Globe. MIT Press was looking for an architecture editor. They had already published the monumental “Bauhaus” book by Hans Wingler, as well as earlier books by Walter Gropius, Moholy-Nagy, Josef Albers, and Oskar Schlemmer — all Bauhaus people. There were some MIT/TAC ties through Muriel Cooper, MIT Press’s first design director, who had designed some of those books, and through Gyorgy Kepes, who came to MIT from the New Bauhaus in Chicago and brought Muriel Cooper to MIT. In those days, she was setting MIT Press books in Helvetica on Selectric typewriters. We met, and talked Helvetica, Selectric, and Herbert Bayer, who I knew quite well by then because he was the modernist poet Mina Loy’s son-in-law. But that’s another story. To come to the point, I got lucky, poetry happened, and books came of it. I later published monographs on both Bayer and Cooper.

Q: With books as one common denominator, obviously, were there other continuities between what you had been doing with poetry and literature, and what you began doing with architecture and, later, art? 

A: When I started, I knew much more about what made good writing than good art. If I didn’t know what made a building great, or a painting beautiful, at least I knew what a good sentence was. I went with that. The manuscripts I am drawn to have always had more to do with the quality of writing than the recognition of the author or the availability of the subject. That’s probably why over half of the books I have published are by first-time authors — people who had something to say rather than people writing books to secure careers or tenure. That’s still what I look for today. This bias is probably what led to a sympathy for architectural theory and a publishing program built around architectural discourse and poetics rather than practice. I am interested in the ways that writing occupies space in the environment, that buildings occupy intellectual ground, and that art blurs into life. I love seeing the movements and unexpected events that take place within these structures: buildings as vessels for ideas, poems as objects, art as existence. I am more interested in architecture as a conceptual medium, a language of possibility, and a way of materializing imagination than as a strictly professional or functional practice; the MIT Press list reflects that.

I have enjoyed exploring the continuities you mention through the visionaries, outsiders, fugitives, and imposters who have contributed so much to the history of art, architecture, and literature even if they come from outside it. It is not an accident that MIT list is informed by writers and thinkers who were formed by Pataphysics, Dimensionism, Dadaism, Situationism, the Independent Group, the Sex Pistols, Black Mountain College, and Psychedelics, as well as from Buffalo, Halifax, Ljubljana, Bucharest, Laos, and Lagos. Like Guy Debord said, “we have to multiply poetic subjects and objects, and we have to organize games of these poetic objects among these poetic subjects.” 

In response to your question, I also want to say that the work of publishers like Dick Higgins, Gérard Lebovici, Seth Siegelaub, and Jonathan William — those four in particular — was tremendously influential. They all transected fields and occupied margins in ways that should not be forgotten.

Q: Part of your legacy at MIT has been to reframe certain genres of writing, and in some cases poetry specifically, as art practices — as analogues to sculpture and painting and performance. Do you think of your work as “literary” editing?

A: Some curators work for museums, some for artists. Some editors work for publishers, others for writers. I never considered myself working in service of either. I loved publishing the poems of Claude Cahun, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, John Hejduk, Roger Connah, Frank O’Hara, Francis Picabia, etc., but I knew this was not my job.

Q: Thank you for taking the time to talk. Anyone who has edited almost 1,500 books is used to doing a lot of things at once, and I know that one of things you’ll be juggling is continued work on the poet/boxer/provocateur Arthur Cravan, who vanished without a trace in 1918. I’ve always thought that you share a lot with Cravan — given his outsider sensibility, literary acumen, and pugilistic wit — but it’s good to know that unlike him you won’t be vanishing. 

A: You’re quite welcome.

3Q: Felice Frankel on improving the visual side of science

Felice Frankel has spent more than 25 years helping scientists and engineers create engaging and informative photographs and images depicting their work. Her images have appeared on the covers of many of the world’s leading scientific journals, and she has described some of the processes and methods involved in several books, as well as in classes and workshops at MIT and around the country, and an online class on MITx. Her latest book, “Picturing Science and Engineering,” published this week by MIT Press, is an exhaustive and profusely illustrated tutorial on how to create images of research that are informative, visually compelling, and scientifically accurate. In addition to working directly with scientists and engineers, Frankel is also a consultant to the MIT News Office. She spoke with MIT News about some of the important lessons in the book.

Q: What are some of the biggest mistakes or missed opportunities that you see in researchers’ photos?

A: Basically, researchers think that we see what they see. They make a picture, and because they’ve been working on the material for so long, it becomes part of their being. They assume that we are looking at what they want us to look at — and that’s generally not the case. It’s very hard to take a step back and be a first-time viewer, and it’s a real issue. Generally there’s much too much in the figure or even in the image. Researchers will mentally delete anything that’s irrelevant, but we don’t do that. So that’s the biggest issue, that the communicative piece of the work is not emphasized in their thinking.

I don’t even know how to teach that. Maybe you can’t. But I tell people to work at it, and just take one or two steps back, maybe even 10, and look at it hopefully for the first time. That’s the idea. And that’s what I believe is missing in scientists’ education — how to communicate to people outside their field — what to leave in, what to leave out. It’s about creating a hierarchy, just as you do in writing. I’ve been traveling a lot lately to promote the book, and it seems that most people agree that this should be part of a researcher’s training, somehow incorporating the visual piece — but it’s not.

Q: How much can images contribute to conveying real, specific information in a research paper?

A: An enormous amount! Even if the image is not photographable, an image can be a diagram of course, or an animation — it could be almost everything. It really is not only showing evidence of something existing but it can communicate a process; it can be explanatory. Images and graphics are very, very powerful tools that should be part of everyone’s thinking. I do meet people whose work is completely unphotographable — the camera can’t take pictures of quantum phenomena — but attempting to come up with an analogy or metaphor to start explaining these complicated ideas is a very exciting exercise.

Something that I’ve been trying to promote on campus is the value of working together cooperatively to come up with that right metaphor or analogy. Ultimately all metaphors fall apart, but just having that conversation itself is a means of clarification in one’s thinking. In that conversation, by saying ‘Let’s come up with something to explain this thing,’ you finally get to a point as a group where you say, ‘OK, what’s the first thing we want to let people know?’ You’d be surprised at how disparate those answers can be, coming from people within the same [research] group. It is a very interesting exercise to see what page everyone is on. It’s something I’ve experienced in our workshops.

The biggest surprise for researchers when we work together is how simple the changes can be. For example, just addressing the composition of the image can change its meaning. Just overlaying some data on top of a background, for example, can simplify the image. It doesn’t work all the time. Each solution is unique. That’s why it’s not trivial to come up with universal rubrics for all graphics.

I show another example in the book where the researcher wanted to compare this set of data with that set of data. He had two separate charts. In this case, by simply overlaying one over the other, you not only take up less space, you are helping the viewer easily compare the two. It is just a simple change in composition.

And also, as I wrote about at great length in the book, the use of color is so important. The overuse of color in figures is astounding to me, because it’s easy; it’s in all the toolboxes. Researchers will put so much color in a figure that the viewer has no idea where to look. Color should be used quietly. Your choices should be intuitive. If you want to bring attention to a certain area, for example, then only color that place in your figure. You don’t have to color the whole thing. What’s interesting is that most researchers immediately see how obvious this idea is, yet again, it comes as a surprise. These are very simple changes that make enormous differences. 

Q: Is it ever OK to manipulate science images, and if so under what kinds of rules or restrictions?

A: There’s a real challenge in coming up with universal rules because every situation is different. In the book I quote Nature, for example, because they have extensive guidelines for what can and cannot be done. But the other journals, not so much. I’m a little surprised by that. Graduate students and postdocs do not think often about the issue.

You know if you think about it, the very nature of making a photographic image is a manipulation of a sort. You have to make a decision about what to include in the picture, what to leave out. In addition, you are making the picture at a particular time, and that certainly affects the resulting image. And deciding on your tools can result in a kind of manipulation. Just by using a camera you are already manipulating the image. Every camera has its own algorithm. My Nikon will take a different picture than your Canon because of their built-in systems. Even if you set the camera for “no manipulation,” the capturing of the image is still part of that camera’s system. One can get a little crazy by saying that nothing must be enhanced. The point is, the subject is just not discussed enough. Unfortunately it has become too easy to “adjust” an image after it has been taken. You can just slide the slider and make things a little more cool. But you must realize you’re changing the data. You have to truly think about it.

If pushed, I can point to one universal rule. One is permitted to increase the contrast to better communicate structure, but only if you increase the contrast to the entire image, and make a universal manipulation or enhancement to the image. You cannot take a piece of an image and change the histogram. So that’s something that Nature discusses, but ultimately, you always have to indicate that you have done so. You must always keep a record and indicate what you have done in the article. It’s critical.

3 Questions: MIT goes interstellar with Voyager 2

NASA announced today that the Voyager 2 spacecraft, some 11 billion miles from home, crossed the heliopause, the boundary between the bubble of space governed by charged particles from our sun and the interstellar medium, or material between stars, on Nov. 5. In an historic feat for the mission, Voyager 2’s plasma instrument, developed at MIT in the 1970s, is set to make the first direct measurements of the interstellar plasma.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 on a mission to explore the solar system’s gas giant planets. With their initial missions achieved and expanded, the spacecraft have continued outward toward the edges of the solar system for the past four decades; today they are the most distant human-made objects from Earth. Voyager 1 is 13 billion miles from Earth and crossed into the interstellar medium in 2012, but its plasma instrument is no longer functioning.

Several researchers from MIT are working directly with data from the Voyager 2 plasma instrument. These include the instrument’s principal investigator, John Richardson, a principal research scientist in the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, and John Belcher, the Class of 1992 Professor of Physics. Belcher was part of the original MIT team, led by Professor Herbert Bridge, that built the Voyager plasma instruments in the 1970s. Richardson answered some questions about the recent Voyager 2 discoveries.

Q. Why is Voyager 2 crossing the heliopause important?

A. Although Voyager 1 already crossed the heliopause in 2012, many questions about this boundary were left unanswered. The biggest was the role of the plasma that contains most of the mass of the charged particles in the solar system, which was not measured by Voyager 1. Our data have shown that there is a boundary layer 1.5 AU [139 million miles] in width inside the heliopause with enhanced densities and decreasing speeds coincident with an increase in the high energy galactic cosmic rays. We also found that the actual boundary, as defined by the plasma, occurs further in than previously thought based on energetic particle data.

Q. Was the heliopause location where you expected?

A: Before the Voyager spacecraft, the heliopause distance was uncertain by at least a factor of two. The Voyager 1 crossing at 122 AU [141 million miles] gave a position in one direction and at one time. The distance varies with time, and many models predict the heliosphere is not spherical. So we really didn’t know if Voyager 2 would cross three years ago or three years from now. The distance is very similar to that at Voyager 1, suggesting the heliosphere may be close to spherical.

Q. What will Voyager 2 see next?

A: Voyager 1 has shown us that the interstellar medium near the heliopause is greatly affected by solar storms. The surges in solar wind drive shocks into the interstellar medium, which then generate plasma waves. We hope to directly measure the plasma changes at these shocks. One controversy about the heliosphere is whether there is a bow shock in the interstellar medium upstream of the heliopause that heats, compresses, and slows the plasma. Our measurements of the plasma, particularly the temperature, could help resolve this question.

Technology and policy pathways to Paris emissions goals

Now convening in Katowice, Poland, amid dire warnings from the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius and the National Climate Assessment about the pace of climate change and severity of its impacts, the 24th Conference of the Parties (COP24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims to get the world on track to keep global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

To that end, negotiators from the nearly 200 signatory nations in the 2015 Paris Agreement are expected this week to report on their progress in meeting initial greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets, or Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), for 2025 to 2030, and to identify pathways to achieving more ambitious NDCs. In support of this global effort, a team of researchers at the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, the MIT Energy Initiative, and the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR) has developed modeling tools to evaluate the climate progress and potential of two major world regions: Southeast Asia and Latin America. 

The team analyzed gaps between current emission levels and NDC targets within each region, highlighted key challenges to compliance with those targets, and recommended cost-effective policy and technology solutions aimed at overcoming those challenges in consultation with General Electric and regional partners. The results appear in two “Pathways to Paris” reports released today — one for the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the other for selected countries in Latin America (LAM).

The researchers say they chose to study the two regions because they represent vastly different starting points on the road to emissions reduction, and thus cover a wide range of technology and policy options for meeting or exceeding current NDCs.

“Whereas Southeast Asia relies heavily on fossil fuels, particularly coal, to produce energy, Latin America, which has embraced hydropower, is already on a far less carbon-intensive emissions path,” says Sergey Paltsev, a deputy director at the Joint Program and senior research scientist at the MIT Energy Initiative, and lead author of both reports. “These regions have not received as much attention as the largest emitting countries by most gap analysis studies, which tend to focus on the globe as a whole.”

Today Paltsev presents key findings from the two reports to COP24 participants at the International Congress Centre in Katowice.

“Our reports help refine the overall picture of how countries in ASEAN and Latin America are doing in terms of progress toward NDC achievement, and how they get there,” says CEEPR Deputy Director Michael Mehling, a co-author of both reports. “They also show pathways to achieve greater emissions reductions and/or reduce emissions at lower economic cost, both of which can help them understand the opportunities and implications of more ambitious NDCs.”

While all economic sectors in both regions need to reduce emissions, the two reports focus on the power generation sector as it offers the least-cost opportunity to achieve the greatest emissions reductions through available technology and policy solutions.

Progress and next steps for ASEAN countries

The ASEAN report shows that collectively, the 10 member countries have made good progress in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions, but will need to implement additional steps to achieve the targets specified in their individual NDCs.

Under its Paris Agreement pledges in which no conditions (e.g. climate financing or technology transfers) apply, the ASEAN region is about 400 MtCO2e (megatons of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions) short of its 2030 emissions target, and must therefore reduce emissions by 11 percent relative to its current trajectory. Under its conditional pledges, the emissions gap is about 900 MtCO2e, indicating a need to reduce emissions by 24 percent by 2030.

The main challenge ASEAN countries face in achieving those goals is to lower emissions while expanding power generation to meet the growing energy demand — nearly a doubling of total primary energy consumption from 2015 to 2030 — in their rapidly developing economies. To overcome this challenge and the emissions gaps shown above, the ASEAN report recommends a shift to lower-carbon electricity generation and adoption of carbon-pricing policies.

Lower-carbon energy options include wind and solar generation along with a switch from coal to natural gas. Producing far less carbon emissions than coal, natural gas could also serve as a backup from intermittent renewables, thereby boosting their penetration in the market.

ASEAN countries could implement carbon pricing through carbon taxes or emissions trading systems, but such policies often face substantial political resistance. To build coalitions of support for ambitious climate policies and to create the domestic supply chains and knowhow needed for robust markets in clean technology, the report calls for an initial focus on technology-specific policies such as renewable energy auctions and renewable portfolio standards.

Progress and next steps for Latin American countries

Due to government-driven initiatives to boost renewable electricity and natural gas, the countries covered by the Latin American (LAM) report — Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela — have also made good progress toward their Paris goals.

Under its unconditional pledges, the region is only about 60 MtCO2e short of its collective 2030 emissions reduction target, and must cut emissions by 2 percent relative to its current trajectory to meet that target. Under its conditional pledges, the emissions gap is about 350 MtCO2e, indicating a needed reduction of 10 percent by 2030.

Just as in the ASEAN region, energy demand in the LAM countries is projected to grow significantly; the LAM report projects an approximately 25 percent increase in total primary energy consumption from 2015 to 2030. A key challenge for some LAM countries in addressing that heightened demand is to develop stable regulatory and legal frameworks to further encourage private investment in clean energy projects.

The LAM report recommends similar technology and policy options for this region as those described above in the ASEAN report. For countries with more advanced administrative and technical capacities, the report calls for carbon pricing because it offers the greatest economic efficiency benefits.

Country-specific analyses

The two reports also show how the MIT team’s tools and analysis can be applied at the country level.

The ASEAN report concludes that Indonesia and Vietnam may achieve their respective emissions reduction goals at a manageable cost. If carbon pricing is applied on an economy-wide basis, the GDP cost in Indonesia and Vietnam is 0.03 percent and 0.008 percent, respectively, relative to GDP in a business-as-usual scenario in 2030.

The LAM report shows that Argentina and Colombia are on track to fulfill their unconditional emissions reduction pledges with existing plans to expand non-fossil electricity generation. To meet conditional pledges, the research team recommends adding an all-sectors emissions trading scheme (ETS) once non-fossil electricity targets are met. Capping emissions at the level consistent with each nation’s conditional pledge would result in carbon prices in Argentina and Colombia of, respectively, $2.70 and $2.90 per tCO2e.

The authors of both reports have shared all input data and tools used to produce the results with the countries in both regions, and plan to place these resources in the public domain in an open-source format. This approach makes it possible for additional countries to analyze their pathways to meeting or exceeding their energy, electrification, and emissions-reduction goals.

“We need more and more studies at the country level,” says Paltsev. “We hope our analysis will help countries in other regions to improve their capability to assess their progress in meeting NDC targets and develop more effective technology and policy strategies to reduce their emissions.”

The research was funded by GE and enhanced through collaboration with representatives of the ASEAN Centre for Energy and selected Latin American countries.

Best Women Golf Dresses for You

Being a beginner at anything in life will give a daunting experience- similar thing happen in the case of golf and buying golf essentials.

It may be tedious to decide the right golf essential as there are number of brands are available in the market. As a result of this, you may be confused and you will be left with questions like, “what will be the best golf outfit?” or “what will be the right equipment for me?” and so on. So, you need to decide what the golf essentials are. For helping out, here is the list of some some details about best women golf dresses.

For all golf lovers, it’s not only important to look perfect in their golf outfit but also to experience a comfy feel while playing the sport is mandatory. While choosing the golf dresses here are some common factors you need to consider.

Size- It’s prime that you choose a shirt whose size perfectly fits your body.  This will make your look outstanding and also gives you a comfy feel during your play.

Material- Polyester and spandex material dresses will make you more comfortable even in a warm evening when compared to other material outfits.

Color- Based on the brand names and designs, golf shirts are available in variety of colors. It’s essential for golf enthusiast to choose the color based on their style and compatibility.

Price- Golf shirts do come with varied price tags based on their brand name, technology used during production and material. So, you need to choose the shirt that offers absolute value for your money.

Now, you may have gained some idea about things you need to consider while choosing a golf shirt. Let’s explore some of the best women golf Clothes.

#1- EP PRO GOLF WOMEN’S POLO SHIRT

EP Pro golf women’s polo shirt is a textured fabric and has the capability to reduce moisture. At the same time, it offers extreme UV protection and made with the help of cent of polyester fabric and comprises a mesh which acts as a source of ventilation.

Pros

  • Ideal for cool weathers
  • Has perfect texture
  • Available in variety of size and colors.

#2- MONTEREY CLUB LADIES SLEEVELESS SHIRT

This womens sleeveless golf shirts is made with the help of 97 polyester materials and 3 percent spandex. It’s been available in different versions like long sleeve, short sleeve or full body version.

Pros

  • High quality brand and style.
  • Available in variety of sizes and comes in contrasting colors.

#3- ADIDAS GOLF POLO T-SHIRT

Adidas offers high quality shirts for all golf enthusiasts. It’s a semi-fitted shirt made of cent percent polyester material and it offers comfy feel throughout the day even in full range of motion. It has a folded-down collar with short sleeve.

Pros

  • Comfortable material with sufficient breathable space
  • Available in variety of colors and sizes.

#4- WOMEN’S DRY FIT GOLF SHIRT

It’s a classic and contoured polo shirt designed specifically for women. It is made of polyester and it’s lightweight in nature. It’s perfect for women who love golfing and working out.

For most women, playing sport like golf is a gratifying experience. However, playing experience can be enhanced by wearing proper apparel according to your style. The above mentioned are some usual factors that need to be ensured before buying golf dress. By exploring these things, you may have some idea before buying golf essential.

Future of the Kitchen Design

The kitchen is the heart and the center of attraction of a home. Nowadays kitchen is not used for the cooking purpose only. It is getting used for multiple purposes such as family gathering, entertainment and also as a charging station. And in current society it is considered important to give a modern and sophisticated design to the kitchens.

Contemporary kitchen designs are based on the food habits of the people and the medium of the preparation of the cooking. In this fast society, people are adopting different methods like ovens and induction cooker for easy and healthy cooking.

So, always consider your necessities and food requirements while thinking about giving a different look to your kitchen. Remember that a small change can make a major and remarkable difference, but you will have to recognize where you have to make that change for a better look.

Some smart home technology is also available. But one should not rush to them without having a good knowledge about the continuity and advantage of that product. Because there is a chance that after a certain period of time that product will be outdated and some new product will come into the market with more facilities. But there are some products that will be utilized for a long time such as combi ovens.

Color is also important when it comes to attractive and fashionable look

All will agree that a good color can make a significant difference. While some designers prefer chocolate brown and gray colors, others are favored light and medium colors for their eye-catching quality.

Future of kitchen design

In the future, a kitchen will be designed in such a way that it will accommodate multiple activities in addition to cooking and family gathering.

Here are the some popularly used kitchen products that have also significance in future:

  •    LED illumination
  •    Recharging stations
  •    Filtering system for the drinking water
  •    Upper-end machines
  •    Larger pantry space

Now people are showing more interest in an excellent combination of traditional and modern design for the kitchen. Here are the five trendy things that will be the part of the future kitchen design:

  •    Wood kitchen cabinets instead of white, metallic and gray kitchen cabinets.
  •    Stainless steel fixtures will be replaced by oil-rubbed bronze finishes.
  •    White and colorful Phoenix kitchen sinks will be a part of the future kitchen.
  •    Open floor design both for the kitchen and home.
  •    Warm metal kitchen fixtures and accents.

The future of kitchen design will be more function oriented. It will not be limited to cooking only. Instead, it will be an ideal place for your family gathering and relaxation. Your kitchen will be the center of attraction of your home interior as well. Therefore, it is important to go through the usage before designing. You need to focus on every detail including designs, floor, advanced lighting, kitchen cabinets, appliances, and recharging stations to ensure better functionality. In addition to the above, you can consider a design combining both traditional and modern to get a traditional touch with a stylish look.

The privacy risks of compiling mobility data

A new study by MIT researchers finds that the growing practice of compiling massive, anonymized datasets about people’s movement patterns is a double-edged sword: While it can provide deep insights into human behavior for research, it could also put people’s private data at risk.  

Companies, researchers, and other entities are beginning to collect, store, and process anonymized data that contains “location stamps” (geographical coordinates and time stamps) of users. Data can be grabbed from mobile phone records, credit card transactions, public transportation smart cards, Twitter accounts, and mobile apps. Merging those datasets could provide rich information about how humans travel, for instance, to optimize transportation and urban planning, among other things.

But with big data come big privacy issues: Location stamps are extremely specific to individuals and can be used for nefarious purposes. Recent research has shown that, given only a few randomly selected points in mobility datasets, someone could identify and learn sensitive information about individuals. With merged mobility datasets, this becomes even easier: An agent could potentially match users trajectories in anonymized data from one dataset, with deanonymized data in another, to unmask the anonymized data.

In a paper published today in IEEE Transactions on Big Data, the MIT researchers show how this can happen in the first-ever analysis of so-called user “matchability” in two large-scale datasets from Singapore, one from a mobile network operator and one from a local transportation system.

The researchers use a statistical model that tracks location stamps of users in both datasets and provides a probability that data points in both sets come from the same person. In experiments, the researchers found the model could match around 17 percent of individuals in one week’s worth of data, and more than 55 percent of individuals after one month of collected data. The work demonstrates an efficient, scalable way to match mobility trajectories in datasets, which can be a boon for research. But, the researchers warn, such processes can increase the possibility of deanonymizing real user data.

“As researchers, we believe that working with large-scale datasets can allow discovering unprecedented insights about human society and mobility, allowing us to plan cities better. Nevertheless, it is important to show if identification is possible, so people can be aware of potential risks of sharing mobility data,” says Daniel Kondor, a postdoc in the Future Urban Mobility Group at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology.

“In publishing the results — and, in particular, the consequences of deanonymizing data — we felt a bit like ‘white hat’ or ‘ethical’ hackers,” adds co-author Carlo Ratti, a professor of the practice in MIT’s Department of Urban Studies and Planning and director of MIT’s Senseable City Lab. “We felt that it was important to warn people about these new possibilities [of data merging] and [to consider] how we might regulate it.”

The co-authors of the study are Behrooz Hashemian, a postdoc at the Senseable City Lab, and Yves-Alexandre de Mondjoye of the Department of Computing and Data Science Institute of Imperial College London.

Eliminating false positives

To understand how matching location stamps and potential deanonymization works, consider this scenario: “I was at Sentosa Island in Singapore two days ago, came to the Dubai airport yesterday, and am on Jumeirah Beach in Dubai today. It’s highly unlikely another person’s trajectory looks exactly the same. In short, if someone has my anonymized credit card information, and perhaps my open location data from Twitter, they could then deanonymize my credit card data,” Ratti says.

Similar models exist to evaluate deanonymization in data. But those use computationally intensive approaches for re-identification, meaning to merge anonymous data with public data to identify specific individuals. These models have only worked on limited datasets. The MIT researchers instead used a simpler statistical approach — measuring the probability of false positives — to efficiently predict matchability among scores of users in massive datasets.

In their work, the researchers compiled two anonymized “low-density” datasets — a few records per day — about mobile phone use and personal transportation in Singapore, recorded over one week in 2011. The mobile data came from a large mobile network operator and comprised timestamps and geographic coordinates in more than 485 million records from over 2 million users. The transportation data contained over 70 million records with timestamps for individuals moving through the city.

The probability that a given user has records in both datasets will increase along with the size of the merged datasets, but so will the probability of false positives. The researchers’ model selects a user from one dataset and finds a user from the other dataset with a high number of matching location stamps. Simply put, as the number of matching points increases, the probability of a false-positive match decreases. After matching a certain number of points along a trajectory, the model rules out the possibility of the match being a false positive.

Focusing on typical users, they estimated a matchability success rate of 17 percent over a week of compiled data, and about 55 percent for four weeks. That estimate jumps to about 95 percent with data compiled over 11 weeks.

The researchers also estimated how much activity is needed to match most users over a week. Looking at users with between 30 and 49 personal transportation records, and around 1,000 mobile records, they estimated more than 90 percent success with a week of compiled data. Additionally, by combining the two datasets with GPS traces — regularly collected actively and passively by smartphone apps — the researchers estimated they could match 95 percent of individual trajectories, using less than one week of data.

Better privacy

With their study, the researchers hope to increase public awareness and promote tighter regulations for sharing consumer data. “All data with location stamps (which is most of today’s collected data) is potentially very sensitive and we should all make more informed decisions on who we share it with,” Ratti says. “We need to keep thinking about the challenges in processing large-scale data, about individuals, and the right way to provide adequate guarantees to preserve privacy.”

To that end, Ratti, Kondor, and other researchers have been working extensively on the ethical and moral issues of big data. In 2013, the Senseable City Lab at MIT launched an initiative called “Engaging Data,” which involves leaders from government, privacy rights groups, academia, and business, who study how mobility data can and should be used by today’s data-collecting firms.

“The world today is awash with big data,” Kondor says. “In 2015, mankind produced as much information as was created in all previous years of human civilization. Although data means a better knowledge of the urban environment, currently much of this wealth of information is held by just a few companies and public institutions that know a lot about us, while we know so little about them. We need to take care to avoid data monopolies and misuse.”

5 Most Easy and Effective Gun Shooting Tips

You probably have begun shooting as a kid or maybe you’re fairly new to this sport. Regardless of when you began, here are 5 essential tips for you to improve yourself as a gun shooter.

  1. Purchase a Good quality Scope

Plan to invest some money on your rings, scope, as well as mounts just as you spend on the rifle. High-quality scopes will aid you in low-light firing scenarios. An excellent scope will likewise have accurate windage as well as elevation variations.

  1. Appropriate ammunition

Making use of the incorrect ammunition is certainly a guaranteed way of ruining your weapon. The gun caliber, where the ammunition is going to be inserted, is usually positioned either next to the ejection chamber or on the gun barrel. You may take a look at the handbook as well.

  1. Always try to improve

Gun Sales OKC – When it comes to gun shooting, never be overconfident. Always target to enhance your shooting abilities. Try to make improvements to your range, the sort of guns you are comfy with plus loading as well as unloading the gun.

  1. Proper Grip

A stable grip is essential for placing precise rounds on the animals. Similar to a loose scope attached to your rifle, a loose grip can cause rounds to fly haphazardly in all directions. You should look at your grip to ensure that you have got the most effective link between you and your rifle.

The weapon is controlled with your forearm leaving the other hand to pay attention to pulling the trigger. To get the best support, grasp your weapon as far out on the rifle as you can. There are various techniques to grip the rifle; however, it’s vital that you get your hand as you can on the weapon since the recoil of the firearm will kick the rifle up. Should you be trying to hold your gun from beneath, it will bounce from your hand each time. For similar reasons, it is essential that you take your elbow away from the equation. Simply by rotating your arm to the side, you will be able to get rid of the hinge and can drive the weapon much better.

  1. Trigger Management

Efficient trigger management begins with setting up a great grip. Wherever your finger strikes the trigger will be the ideal spot for you to put your finger on it. You will have far better trigger control with the weapon in your hands. Keep the second joint of the trigger finger aimed directly at the target while you push the trigger. For firing a powerful shot, the force on the trigger must be smooth as well as even. You may pull your trigger as fast as you prefer so long as it is smooth. While pulling the trigger you must be visually patient implying that you do not hurry your shot in case it is not there. You should wait until you are able to see what you ought to see prior to shooting. Or else you will end up missing the shot.

It is possible to enhance your trigger control by ensuring that your gun has a sharp trigger pull. There is no need for any super-light bench rest trigger; however, a clean 2 to 3-pound trigger pull will always make a huge difference when it comes to shooting.

Facts You Must Know about Tornado and Storm Shelters

Tornados and storms are a natural phenomenon, and they cannot be prevented by any kind of human intervention. They leave huge destruction in their wake, with large casualty involving the destruction of property and human lives in their path. Both tornado and storms are extreme weather condition and are associated with strong winds, torrential rainfall, thunder and lightning and flooding of affected areas.

The statistics for tornados and storms in the US is massive

The US encounter maximum number of tornados and storms than any other nation because of its geographical location and its vast size straddling the two hemispheres. Some are of much lower magnitude while others can be extremely devastating and there is nothing that we can do about it. Alerts are given by weather agencies about impending natural catastrophes hitting a particular area. Both state and federal government agencies and relief workers are always prepared for any such emergencies and there are designated tornado and f5 storm shelters edmond ok, mostly local schools or church, structures usually made of concrete, in place in each area, where the residents can seek shelter and receive all kind of relief material and medical attention required.

Storm shelters can be built on premises

But sometimes it’s not possible to go far from home, so you can have a tornado or storm shelter built within the premises of your residence. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), allows 3 kinds of storm or tornado shelters to built in your premises- above ground, below ground and within a basement.

These structures are made of concrete and steel, and the position of these shelters are determined by pre-existing factors like the underground water table in your area. If the water table is high, then making a storm shelter below ground can become extremely costly.

These rooms are built to protect flying debris during tornados and storms. An issue to remember during building or pre-installing tornado and storms is that it usually has one door, and if the room is underground, then if your home breaks or if any debris falls on top of the door, then your way of escape is blocked.

When located above the ground, then doors are built slanting, so that your path is not blocked and can be evacuated easily. Make sure there are necessary supplies inside the shelters.

Tulsa f5 storm shelters are made of concrete, steel or fibreglass, as this are strong materials, which can bear heavy lashing of winds and other flying materials uprooted by the tornado and storm.

Be prepared for tornados and storms

Tornados are common in the states of Texas and Idaho, but can occur anywhere, the same applies for storms. The pre-installed storm shelters have gained popularity in the past few years, with more and more homes installing it. When buying a shelter, check the material and the location you want to keep it in. Make sure these have the necessary certification for FEMA.

When an alert is sounded, make sure evacuate immediately to either the shelter at home or to the communal shelter, as a human life is more precious than anything else.

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