People Should Find A Safe Storm Shelter During Thunderstorm

Storm Shelters in OKC

Tuesday June 5, 2001 marked the start of an extremely fascinating time in the annals of my cherished Houston. Tropical storm Allison, that early summer daytime came to see. The thunderstorm went rapidly, although there was Tuesday. Friday, afterward arrived, and Allison returned. This time going slowly, this time in the north. The thunderstorm became still. Thousands of people driven from their houses. Only when they might be desired most, several leading hospitals shut. Dozens of important surface roads, and every important highway covered in water that was high.

Yet even prior to the rain stopped, service to others, and narratives of Christian compassion started to be composed. For a couples class, about 75 people had assembled at Lakewood Church among the greatest nondenominational churches in The United States. From time they got ready to depart the waters had climbed so high they were stranded. The facility of Lakewood stayed dry and high at the center of among the hardest hit parts of town. Refugees in the powerful thunderstorm started arriving at their doorstep. Without no advance preparation, and demand of official sanction, those 75 classmates started a calamity shelter that grew to hold over 3,000 customers. The greatest of over 30 refuges that could be established in the height of the thunderstorm.

Where help was doled out to those who’d suffered losses after Lakewood functioned as a Red Cross Service Center. When it became clear that FEMA aid, and Red Cross wouldn’t bring aid enough, Lakewood and Second Baptist joined -Houston to produce an adopt a family plan to greatly help get folks on their feet quicker. In the occasions that followed militaries of Christians arrived in both churches. From all over town, people of economical standing, race, and each and every denomination collected. Wet rotted carpeting were pulled up, sheet stone removed. Piles of clothes donated food and bed clothes were doled out. Elbow grease and cleaning equipment were used to start eliminating traces of the damage.

It would have been an excellent example of practical ministry in a period of disaster, in the event the story stopped here, but it continues. A great many other churches functioned as shelters as well as in the occasions that followed Red Cross Service Centers. Tons of new volunteers, a lot of them Christians put to work, and were put through accelerated training. That Saturday, I used to be trapped in my own, personal subdivision. Particular that my family was safe because I worked in Storm Shelters OKC that was near where I used to live. What they wouldn’t permit the storm to do, is take their demand to give their religion, or their self respect. I saw so a lot of people as they brought gifts of food, clothes and bedclothes, praising the Lord. I saw young kids coming making use of their parents to not give new, rarely used toys to kids who had none.

Leaning On God Through Hard Times

Unity Church of Christianity from a location across town impacted by the storm sent a sizable way to obtain bedding as well as other supplies. A tiny troupe of musicians and Christian clowns requested to be permitted to amuse the kids in the shelter where I served and arrived. We of course promptly taken their offer. The kids were collected by them in a sizable empty space of flooring. They sang, they told stories, balloon animals were made by them. The kids, frightened, at least briefly displaced laughed.

When not occupied elsewhere I did lots of listening. I listened to survivors that were disappointed, and frustrated relief workers. I listened to kids make an effort to take advantage of a scenario they could not comprehend. All these are only the stories I have heard or seen. I am aware that spiritual groups, Churches, and lots of other individual Christians functioned admirably. I do need to thank them for the attempts in disaster. I thank The Lord for supplying them to serve.

I didn’t write its individuals, or this which means you’d feel sorry for Houston. As this disaster unfolded yet what I saw encouraged my beliefs the Lord will provide through our brothers and sisters in religion for us. Regardless how awful your community hits, you the individual Christian can be a part of the remedy. Those blankets you can probably never use, and have stored away mean much to people who have none. You are able to help in the event that you can drive. You are able to help if you’re able to create a cot. It is possible to help in the event that you can scrub a wall. It is possible to help if all you are able to do is sit and listen. Large catastrophes like Allison get lots of focus. However a disaster can come in virtually any size. That is a serious disaster to your family that called it home in case a single household burns. It is going to be generations prior to the folks here forget Allison.

United States Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities

Firms investing in this sector can research, develop and create, as well as appreciate the edges of a global gas and oil portfolio with no political and economical disadvantages. Allowing regime and the US financial conditions is rated amongst the world and the petroleum made in US is sold at costs that were international. The firms will likely gain as US also has a national market that is booming. Where 500 exploration wells are drilled most of the petroleum exploration in US continues to be concentrated around the Taranaki Basin. On the other hand, the US sedimentary basins still remain unexplored and many show existence of petroleum seeps and arrangements were also unveiled by the investigation data with high hydrocarbon potential. There have already been onshore gas discoveries before including Great south river basins, East Coast Basin and offshore Canterbury.

As interest in petroleum is expected to grow strongly during this interval but this doesn’t automatically dim the bright future expectations in this sector. The interest in petroleum is anticipated to reach 338 PJ per annum. The US government is eager to augment the gas and oil supply. As new discoveries in this sector are required to carry through the national demand at the same time as raise the amount of self reliance and minimize the cost on imports of petroleum the Gas and Oil exploration sector is thought to be among the dawn sectors. The US government has invented a distinctive approach to reach its petroleum and gas exploration targets. It’s developed a “Benefit For Attempt” model for Petroleum and Gas exploration tasks in US.

The “Benefit For Attempt” in today’s analytic thinking is defined as oil reserves found per kilometer drilled. It will help in deriving the estimate of reservations drilled for dollar and each kilometer spent for each investigation. The authorities of US has revealed considerable signs that it’ll bring positive effects of change which will favor investigation of new oil reserves since the price of investigation has adverse effects on investigation task. The Authorities of US has made the information accessible about the oil potential in its study report. Foil of advice in royalty and allocation regimes, and simplicity of processes have enhanced the attractiveness of Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector in the United States.

Petroleum was the third biggest export earner in 2008 for US and the chance to to keep up the growth of the sector is broadly accessible by manners of investigation endeavors that are new. The government is poised to keep the impetus in this sector. Now many firms are active with new exploration jobs in the Challenger Plateau of the United States, Northland East Slope Basin region, outer Taranaki Basin, and Bellona Trough region. The 89 Energy oil and gas sector guarantees foreign investors as government to high increase has declared a five year continuance of an exemption for offshore petroleum and gas exploration in its 2009 budget. The authorities provide nonresident rig operators with tax breaks.

Modern Robot Duct Cleaning Uses

AC systems, and heat, venting collect pollutants and contaminants like mold, debris, dust and bacteria that can have an adverse impact on indoor air quality. Most folks are at present aware that indoor air pollution could be a health concern and increased visibility has been thus gained by the area. Studies have also suggested cleaning their efficacy enhances and is contributory to a longer operating life, along with maintenance and energy cost savings. The cleaning of the parts of forced air systems of heat, venting and cooling system is what’s called duct cleaning. Robots are an advantageous tool raising the price and efficacy facets of the procedure. Therefore, using modern robot duct isn’t any longer a new practice.

A cleaner, healthier indoor environment is created by a clean air duct system which lowers energy prices and increases efficiency. As we spend more hours inside air duct cleaning has become an important variable in the cleaning sector. Indoor pollutant levels can increase. Health effects can show years or up immediately after repeated or long exposure. These effects range from some respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer that can be deadly or debilitating. Therefore, it’s wise to ensure indoor air quality isn’t endangered inside buildings. Dangerous pollutants that can found in inside can transcend outdoor air pollutants in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency.

Duct cleaning from Air Duct Cleaning Edmond professionals removes microbial contaminants, that might not be visible to the naked eye together with both observable contaminants. Indoor air quality cans impact and present a health hazard. Air ducts can be host to a number of health hazard microbial agents. Legionnaires Disease is one malaise that’s got public notice as our modern surroundings supports the development of the bacteria that has the potential to cause outbreaks and causes the affliction. Typical disorder-causing surroundings contain wetness producing gear such as those in air conditioned buildings with cooling towers that are badly maintained. In summary, in building and designing systems to control our surroundings, we’ve created conditions that were perfect . Those systems must be correctly tracked and preserved. That’s the secret to controlling this disorder.

Robots allow for the occupation while saving workers from exposure to be done faster. Signs of the technological progress in the duct cleaning business is apparent in the variety of gear now available for example, array of robotic gear, to be used in air duct cleaning. Robots are priceless in hard to reach places. Robots used to see states inside the duct, now may be used for spraying, cleaning and sampling procedures. The remote controlled robotic gear can be fitted with practical and fastener characteristics to reach many different use functions.

Video recorders and a closed circuit television camera system can be attached to the robotic gear to view states and operations and for documentation purposes. Inside ducts are inspected by review apparatus in the robot. Robots traveling to particular sections of the system and can move around barriers. Some join functions that empower cleaning operation and instruction manual and fit into little ducts. An useful view range can be delivered by them with models delivering disinfection, cleaning, review, coating and sealing abilities economically.

The remote controlled robotic gear comes in various sizes and shapes for different uses. Of robotic video cameras the first use was in the 80s to record states inside the duct. Robotic cleaning systems have a lot more uses. These devices provide improved accessibility for better cleaning and reduce labor costs. Lately, functions have been expanded by areas for the use of small mobile robots in the service industries, including uses for review and duct cleaning.

More improvements are being considered to make a tool that was productive even more effective. If you determine to have your ventilation, heat and cooling system cleaned, it’s important to make sure all parts of the system clean and is qualified to achieve this. Failure to clean one part of a contaminated system can lead to re-contamination of the entire system.

When To Call A DWI Attorney

Charges or fees against a DWI offender need a legal Sugar Land criminal defense attorney that is qualified dismiss or so that you can reduce charges or the fees. So, undoubtedly a DWI attorney is needed by everyone. Even if it’s a first-time violation the penalties can be severe being represented by a DWI attorney that is qualified is vitally significant. If you’re facing following charges for DWI subsequently the punishments can contain felony charges and be severe. Locating an excellent attorney is thus a job you should approach when possible.

So you must bear in mind that you just should hire a DWI attorney who practices within the state where the violation occurred every state within America will make its laws and legislation regarding DWI violations. It is because they are going to have the knowledge and expertise of state law that is relevant to sufficiently defend you and will be knowledgeable about the processes and evaluations performed to establish your guilt.

As your attorney they are going to look to the evaluations that have been completed at the time of your arrest and the authorities evidence that is accompanying to assess whether or not these evaluations were accurately performed, carried out by competent staff and if the right processes where followed. It isn’t often that a police testimony is asserted against, although authorities testimony also can be challenged in court.

You should attempt to locate someone who specializes in these kind of cases when you start trying to find a DWI attorney. Whilst many attorneys may be willing to consider on your case, a lawyer who specializes in these cases is required by the skilled knowledge needed to interpret the scientific and medical evaluations ran when you had been detained. The first consultation is free and provides you with the chance to to inquire further about their experience in fees and these cases.

Many attorneys will work according into a fee that is hourly or on a set fee basis determined by the kind of case. You may find how they have been paid to satisfy your financial situation and you will have the capacity to negotiate the conditions of their fee. If you are unable to afford to hire an attorney that is private you then can request a court-appointed attorney paid for by the state. Before you hire a DWI attorney you should make sure when you might be expected to appear in court and you understand the precise charges imposed against you.

How Credit Card Works

The credit card is making your life more easy, supplying an amazing set of options. The credit card is a retail trade settlement; a credit system worked through the little plastic card which bears its name. Regulated by ISO 7810 defines credit cards the actual card itself consistently chooses the same structure, size and contour. A strip of a special stuff on the card (the substance resembles the floppy disk or a magnetic group) is saving all the necessary data. This magnetic strip enables the credit card’s validation. The layout has become an important variable; an enticing credit card layout is essential in ensuring advice and its dependability keeping properties.

A credit card is supplied to the user just after a bank approves an account, estimating a varied variety of variables to ascertain fiscal dependability. This bank is the credit supplier. When a purchase is being made by an individual, he must sign a receipt to verify the trade. There are the card details, and the amount of cash to be paid. You can find many shops that take electronic authority for the credit cards and use cloud tokenization for authorization. Nearly all verification are made using a digital verification system; it enables assessing the card is not invalid. If the customer has enough cash to insure the purchase he could be attempting to make staying on his credit limit any retailer may also check.

As the credit supplier, it is as much as the banks to keep the user informed of his statement. They typically send monthly statements detailing each trade procedures through the outstanding fees, the card and the sums owed. This enables the cardholder to ensure all the payments are right, and to discover mistakes or fraudulent action to dispute. Interest is typically charging and establishes a minimal repayment amount by the end of the following billing cycle.

The precise way the interest is charged is normally set within an initial understanding. On the rear of the credit card statement these elements are specified by the supplier. Generally, the credit card is an easy type of revolving credit from one month to another. It can also be a classy financial instrument, having many balance sections to afford a greater extent for credit management. Interest rates may also be not the same as one card to another. The credit card promotion services are using some appealing incentives find some new ones along the way and to keep their customers.

Why Get Help From A Property Management?

One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the revenue of your rental home would be to engage and contact property management in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. If you wish to know more and are considering the product please browse the remainder of the post. Leasing out your bit of real property may be real cash-cow as many landlords understand, but that cash flow usually includes a tremendous concern. Night phones from tenants that have the trouble of marketing the house if you own an emptiness just take out lots of the pleasure of earning money off of leases, overdue lease payments which you must chase down, as well as over-flowing lavatories. One solution while removing much of the anxiety, to have the earnings would be to engage a property management organization.

These businesses perform as the go between for the tenant as well as you. The tenant will not actually need to understand who you’re when you hire a property management company. The company manages the day to day while you still possess the ability to help make the final judgements in regards to the home relationships using the tenant. The company may manage the marketing for you personally, for those who are in possession of a unit that is vacant. Since the company is going to have more connections in a bigger market than you’ve got along with the industry than you are doing, you’ll discover your device gets stuffed a whole lot more quickly making use of their aid. In addition, the property management company may care for testing prospective tenants and help prospects move in by partnering with the right home services and moving company. With regards to the arrangement you’ve got, you might nevertheless not be unable to get the last say regarding if a tenant is qualified for the the system, but of locating a suitable tenant, the day-to-day difficulty is not any longer your problem. They’ll also manage the before-move-in the reviews as well as reviews required following a tenant moves away.

It is possible to step back watching the profits, after the the system is stuffed. Communicating will be handled by the company with all the tenant if you have an issue. You won’t be telephoned if this pipe explosions at the center of the night time. Your consultant is called by the tenant in the company, who then makes the preparations that are required to get the issue repaired with a care supplier. You get a phone call a day later or may not know there was an issue before you register using the business. The property management organization may also make your leasing obligations to to get. The company will do what’s required to accumulate if your tenant is making a payment. In certain arrangements, the organization is going to also take-over paying taxation, insurance, and the mortgage on the portion of property. You actually need to do-nothing but appreciate after after all the the invoices are paid, the revenue which is sent your way.

With all the advantages, you’re probably questioning exactly what to employing a property management organization, the downside should be. From hiring one the primary variable that stops some landlords is the price. All these providers will be paid for by you. The price must be weighed by you from the time frame you’ll save time that you may subsequently use to follow additional revenue-producing efforts or just take pleasure in the fruits of your expense work.

Benifits From An Orthodontic Care

Orthodontics is the specialty of dentistry centered on the identification and treatment of dental and related facial problems. The outcomes of Norman Orthodontist OKC treatment could be dramatic — an advanced quality of life for a lot of individuals of ages and lovely grins, improved oral health health, aesthetics and increased cosmetic tranquility. Whether into a look dentistry attention is needed or not is an individual’s own choice. Situations are tolerated by most folks like totally various kinds of bite issues or over bites and don’t get treated. Nevertheless, a number people sense guaranteed with teeth that are correctly aligned, appealing and simpler. Dentistry attention may enhance construct and appearance power. It jointly might work with you consult with clearness or to gnaw on greater.

Orthodontic attention isn’t only decorative in character. It might also gain long term oral health health. Right, correctly aligned teeth is not more difficult to floss and clean. This may ease and decrease the risk of rot. It may also quit periodontists irritation that problems gums. Periodontists might finish in disease, that occurs once micro-organism bunch round your house where the teeth and the gums meet. Periodontists can be ended in by untreated periodontists. Such an unhealthiness result in enamel reduction and may ruin bone that surrounds the teeth. Less may be chewed by people who have stings that are harmful with efficacy. A few of us using a serious bite down side might have difficulties obtaining enough nutrients. Once the teeth aren’t aimed correctly, this somewhat might happen. Morsel issues that are repairing may allow it to be more easy to chew and digest meals.

One may also have language problems, when the top and lower front teeth do not arrange right. All these are fixed through therapy, occasionally combined with medical help. Eventually, remedy may ease to avoid early use of rear areas. Your teeth grow to an unlikely quantity of pressure, as you chew down. In case your top teeth do not match it’ll trigger your teeth that are back to degrade. The most frequently encountered type of therapy is the braces (or retainer) and head-gear. But, a lot people complain about suffering with this technique that, unfortunately, is also unavoidable. Sport braces damages, as well as additional individuals have problem in talking. Dental practitioners, though, state several days can be normally disappeared throughout by the hurting. Occasionally annoyance is caused by them. In the event that you’d like to to quit more unpleasant senses, fresh, soft and tedious food must be avoided by you. In addition, tend not to take your braces away unless the medical professional claims so.

It is advised which you just observe your medical professional often for medical examinations to prevent choice possible problems that may appear while getting therapy. You are going to be approved using a specific dental hygiene, if necessary. Dental specialist may look-out of managing and id malocclusion now. Orthodontia – the main specialization of medication – mainly targets repairing chin problems and teeth, your grin as well as thus your sting. Dentist, however, won’t only do chin remedies and crisis teeth. They also handle tender to severe dental circumstances which may grow to states that are risky. You actually have not got to quantify throughout a predicament your life all. See dental specialist San – Direction Posts, and you’ll notice only but of stunning your smile plenty will soon be.

Caspar Hare, Georgia Perakis named associate deans of Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing

Caspar Hare and Georgia Perakis have been appointed the new associate deans of the Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing (SERC), a cross-cutting initiative in the MIT Stephen A. Schwarzman College of Computing. Their new roles will take effect on Sept. 1.

“Infusing social and ethical aspects of computing in academic research and education is a critical component of the college mission,” says Daniel Huttenlocher, dean of the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing and the Henry Ellis Warren Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. “I look forward to working with Caspar and Georgia on continuing to develop and advance SERC and its reach across MIT. Their complementary backgrounds and their broad connections across MIT will be invaluable to this next chapter of SERC.”

Caspar Hare

Hare is a professor of philosophy in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. A member of the MIT faculty since 2003, his main interests are in ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology. The general theme of his recent work has been to bring ideas about practical rationality and metaphysics to bear on issues in normative ethics and epistemology. He is the author of two books: “On Myself, and Other, Less Important Subjects” (Princeton University Press 2009), about the metaphysics of perspective, and “The Limits of Kindness” (Oxford University Press 2013), about normative ethics.

Georgia Perakis

Perakis is the William F. Pounds Professor of Management and professor of operations research, statistics, and operations management at the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she has been a faculty member since 1998. She investigates the theory and practice of analytics and its role in operations problems and is particularly interested in how to solve complex and practical problems in pricing, revenue management, supply chains, health care, transportation, and energy applications, among other areas. Since 2019, she has been the co-director of the Operations Research Center, an interdepartmental PhD program that jointly reports to MIT Sloan and the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing, a role in which she will remain. Perakis will also assume an associate dean role at MIT Sloan in recognition of her leadership.

Hare and Perakis succeed David Kaiser, the Germeshausen Professor of the History of Science and professor of physics, and Julie Shah, the H.N. Slater Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, who will be stepping down from their roles at the conclusion of their three-year term on Aug. 31.

“My deepest thanks to Dave and Julie for their tremendous leadership of SERC and contributions to the college as associate deans,” says Huttenlocher.

SERC impact

As the inaugural associate deans of SERC, Kaiser and Shah have been responsible for advancing a mission to incorporate humanist, social science, social responsibility, and civic perspectives into MIT’s teaching, research, and implementation of computing. In doing so, they have engaged dozens of faculty members and thousands of students from across MIT during these first three years of the initiative.

They have brought together people from a broad array of disciplines to collaborate on crafting original materials such as active learning projects, homework assignments, and in-class demonstrations. A collection of these materials was recently published and is now freely available to the world via MIT OpenCourseWare.

In February 2021, they launched the MIT Case Studies in Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing for undergraduate instruction across a range of classes and fields of study. The specially commissioned and peer-reviewed cases are based on original research and are brief by design. Three issues have been published to date and a fourth will be released later this summer. Kaiser will continue to oversee the successful new series as editor.

Last year, 60 undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs joined a community of SERC Scholars to help advance SERC efforts in the college. The scholars participate in unique opportunities throughout, such as the summer Experiential Ethics program. A multidisciplinary team of graduate students last winter worked with the instructors and teaching assistants of class 6.036 (Introduction to Machine Learning), MIT’s largest machine learning course, to infuse weekly labs with material covering ethical computing, data and model bias, and fairness in machine learning through SERC.

Through efforts such as these, SERC has had a substantial impact at MIT and beyond. Over the course of their tenure, Kaiser and Shah have engaged about 80 faculty members, and more than 2,100 students took courses that included new SERC content in the last year alone. SERC’s reach extended well beyond engineering students, with about 500 exposed to SERC content through courses offered in the School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, the MIT Sloan School of Management, and the School of Architecture and Planning.

Caspar Hare, Georgia Perakis named associate deans of Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing

Caspar Hare and Georgia Perakis have been appointed the new associate deans of the Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing (SERC), a cross-cutting initiative in the MIT Stephen A. Schwarzman College of Computing. Their new roles will take effect on Sept. 1.

“Infusing social and ethical aspects of computing in academic research and education is a critical component of the college mission,” says Daniel Huttenlocher, dean of the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing and the Henry Ellis Warren Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. “I look forward to working with Caspar and Georgia on continuing to develop and advance SERC and its reach across MIT. Their complementary backgrounds and their broad connections across MIT will be invaluable to this next chapter of SERC.”

Caspar Hare

Hare is a professor of philosophy in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. A member of the MIT faculty since 2003, his main interests are in ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology. The general theme of his recent work has been to bring ideas about practical rationality and metaphysics to bear on issues in normative ethics and epistemology. He is the author of two books: “On Myself, and Other, Less Important Subjects” (Princeton University Press 2009), about the metaphysics of perspective, and “The Limits of Kindness” (Oxford University Press 2013), about normative ethics.

Georgia Perakis

Perakis is the William F. Pounds Professor of Management and professor of operations research, statistics, and operations management at the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she has been a faculty member since 1998. She investigates the theory and practice of analytics and its role in operations problems and is particularly interested in how to solve complex and practical problems in pricing, revenue management, supply chains, health care, transportation, and energy applications, among other areas. Since 2019, she has been the co-director of the Operations Research Center, an interdepartmental PhD program that jointly reports to MIT Sloan and the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing, a role in which she will remain. Perakis will also assume an associate dean role at MIT Sloan in recognition of her leadership.

Hare and Perakis succeed David Kaiser, the Germeshausen Professor of the History of Science and professor of physics, and Julie Shah, the H.N. Slater Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, who will be stepping down from their roles at the conclusion of their three-year term on Aug. 31.

“My deepest thanks to Dave and Julie for their tremendous leadership of SERC and contributions to the college as associate deans,” says Huttenlocher.

SERC impact

As the inaugural associate deans of SERC, Kaiser and Shah have been responsible for advancing a mission to incorporate humanist, social science, social responsibility, and civic perspectives into MIT’s teaching, research, and implementation of computing. In doing so, they have engaged dozens of faculty members and thousands of students from across MIT during these first three years of the initiative.

They have brought together people from a broad array of disciplines to collaborate on crafting original materials such as active learning projects, homework assignments, and in-class demonstrations. A collection of these materials was recently published and is now freely available to the world via MIT OpenCourseWare.

In February 2021, they launched the MIT Case Studies in Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing for undergraduate instruction across a range of classes and fields of study. The specially commissioned and peer-reviewed cases are based on original research and are brief by design. Three issues have been published to date and a fourth will be released later this summer. Kaiser will continue to oversee the successful new series as editor.

Last year, 60 undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs joined a community of SERC Scholars to help advance SERC efforts in the college. The scholars participate in unique opportunities throughout, such as the summer Experiential Ethics program. A multidisciplinary team of graduate students last winter worked with the instructors and teaching assistants of class 6.036 (Introduction to Machine Learning), MIT’s largest machine learning course, to infuse weekly labs with material covering ethical computing, data and model bias, and fairness in machine learning through SERC.

Through efforts such as these, SERC has had a substantial impact at MIT and beyond. Over the course of their tenure, Kaiser and Shah have engaged about 80 faculty members, and more than 2,100 students took courses that included new SERC content in the last year alone. SERC’s reach extended well beyond engineering students, with about 500 exposed to SERC content through courses offered in the School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, the MIT Sloan School of Management, and the School of Architecture and Planning.

Why it’s a problem that pulse oximeters don’t work as well on patients of color

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive test that measures the oxygen saturation level in a patient’s blood, and it has become an important tool for monitoring many patients, including those with Covid-19. But new research links faulty readings from pulse oximeters with racial disparities in health outcomes, potentially leading to higher rates of death and complications such as organ dysfunction, in patients with darker skin.

It is well known that non-white intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive less-accurate readings of their oxygen levels using pulse oximeters — the common devices clamped on patients’ fingers. Now, a paper co-authored by MIT scientists reveals that inaccurate pulse oximeter readings can lead to critically ill patients of color receiving less supplemental oxygen during ICU stays.

The paper,Assessment of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Oxygen Supplementation Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit,” published in JAMA Internal Medicine, focused on the question of whether there were differences in supplemental oxygen administration among patients of different races and ethnicities that were associated with pulse oximeter performance discrepancies. 

The findings showed that inaccurate readings of Asian, Black, and Hispanic patients resulted in them receiving less supplemental oxygen than white patients. These results provide insight into how health technologies such as the pulse oximeter contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in care, according to the researchers.

The study’s senior author, Leo Anthony Celi, clinical research director and principal research scientist at the MIT Laboratory for Computational Physiology, and a principal research scientist at the MIT Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES), says the challenge is that health care technology is routinely designed around the majority population.

“Medical devices are typically developed in rich countries with white, fit individuals as test subjects,” he explains. “Drugs are evaluated through clinical trials that disproportionately enroll white individuals. Genomics data overwhelmingly come from individuals of European descent.”

“It is therefore not surprising that we observe disparities in outcomes across demographics, with poorer outcomes among those who were not included in the design of health care,” Celi adds.

While pulse oximeters are widely used due to ease of use, the most accurate way to measure blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels is by taking a sample of the patient’s arterial blood. False readings of normal pulse oximetry (SpO2) can lead to hidden hypoxemia. Elevated bilirubin in the bloodstream and the use of certain medications in the ICU called vasopressors can also throw off pulse oximetry readings.

More than 3,000 participants were included in the study, of whom 2,667 were white, 207 Black, 112 Hispanic, and 83 Asian — using data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care version 4, or MIMIC-IV dataset. This dataset is comprised of more than 50,000 patients admitted to the ICU at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and includes both pulse oximeter readings and oxygen saturation levels detected in blood samples. MIMIC-IV also includes rates of administration of supplemental oxygen.

When the researchers compared SpO2 levels taken by pulse oximeter to oxygen saturation from blood samples, they found that Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients had higher SpO2 readings than white patients for a given blood oxygen saturation level measured in blood samples. The turnaround time of arterial blood gas analysis may take from several minutes up to an hour. As a result, clinicians typically make decisions based on pulse oximetry reading, unaware of its suboptimal performance in certain patient demographics.

Eric Gottlieb, the study’s lead author, a nephrologist, a lecturer at MIT, and a Harvard Medical School fellow at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, called for more research to be done, in order to better understand “how pulse oximeter performance disparities lead to worse outcomes; possible differences in ventilation management, fluid resuscitation, triaging decisions, and other aspects of care should be explored. We then need to redesign these devices and properly evaluate them to ensure that they perform equally well for all patients.”

Celi emphasizes that understanding biases that exist within real-world data is crucial in order to better develop algorithms and artificial intelligence to assist clinicians with decision-making. “Before we invest more money on developing artificial intelligence for health care using electronic health records, we have to identify all the drivers of outcome disparities, including those that arise from the use of suboptimally designed technology,” he argues. “Otherwise, we risk perpetuating and magnifying health inequities with AI.”

Celi described the project and research as a testament to the value of data sharing that is the core of the MIMIC project. “No one team has the expertise and perspective to understand all the biases that exist in real-world data to prevent AI from perpetuating health inequities,” he says. “The database we analyzed for this project has more than 30,000 credentialed users consisting of teams that include data scientists, clinicians, and social scientists.”

The many researchers working on this topic together form a community that shares and performs quality checks on codes and queries, promotes reproducibility of the results, and crowdsources the curation of the data, Celi says. “There is harm when health data is not shared,” he says. “Limiting data access means limiting the perspectives with which data is analyzed and interpreted. We’ve seen numerous examples of model mis-specifications and flawed assumptions leading to models that ultimately harm patients.”

Removing the Oxygen Out of Natural Gas

Do you wish to learn more about the deoxygenation of natural gas? Then you are in the appropriate location. You will find numerous advantages and all the information you require regarding oxygen removal from natural gas in this post. Both the environment and natural gas streams contain oxygen. All three types of gas—natural, liquefied petroleum, and liquefied natural—have some oxygen in their free natural form. The vacuum system comprises coal mines, oil recovery systems, and landfills, including oxygen. According to numerous pipeline requirements, natural gas must have less than fewer parts per million of oxygen. Different natural gas surges, sometimes known as polluted gas streams, include oxygen. However, traditional channels could only contain 100 ppm of oxygen. cleaner formulation It is possible to add or provide oxygen when utilizing gas dryers. It must be treated with air to reduce the calorific value of LPG and create air balance. As landfill gas is extracted, oxygen that is present in it is drawn into the dump.

Why Does Natural Gas Need to Have the Oxygen Removed?

Natural gas with oxygen should be avoided since it might corrode processing equipment, increasing maintenance and replacement expenses. Additionally, when oxygen and hydrogen sulfide combines, oxygen turns into sulfur. By oxidizing the glycol solvent used in drying plants or producing salt in acid gas removal systems, oxygen also has an impact on purge streams. Oxygen, a natural gas stream, can lead to several problems, such as the breakdown of process chemicals (such as amine), increased pipeline erosion, and exceeding the ten ppm limit for pipelines. It is challenging to isolate oxygen from natural gas. In addition to the technology’s lack of advancement and accessibility, the market’s potential is also thought to be constrained. Due to the high cost of such a removal project and the absence of suitable channels, the sector has yet to acquire expertise and competence.

Oxidation Catalytic

Directing a natural gas stream over a catalyst bed at a higher temperature can remove oxygen from the gas. Natural gas and oxygen combine to produce CO2 and water. Natural gas is used as the fuel in the catalytic “burn” of oxygen to produce CO2 and water. Since the reaction can occur at lower temperatures, heavier hydrocarbons (propane+) are favored. This makes it possible to process heavier hydrocarbon streams with more substantial oxygen concentrations than streams with just methane as the fuel source. In some circumstances, hydrogen non ionic surfactant can serve as a fuel source. If sufficient amounts of hydrogen are not already present, additional hydrogen can be added and injected into the gas stream to promote the reaction. Two of hydrogen’s main benefits are lower reaction temperature and less potential for secondary reactions.

Advantages of Taking The Oxygen Out of Natural Gas

  • Handles gases of any volume or oxygen content.
  • Operational simplicity
  • Economical
  • Exceptionally trustworthy
  • The oxygen content falls below detectable levels.

Conclusion

The article has now come to an end. If you’ve read the entire article, you already know all there is to know about deoxygenating natural gas.

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Christopher Capozzola named senior associate dean for open learning

MIT Professor Christopher Capozzola has joined MIT Open Learning as senior associate dean, effective Aug. 1. Reporting to interim Vice President for Open Learning Eric Grimson, Capozzola will oversee open education offerings including OpenCourseWare, MITx, and MicroMasters, as well as the Digital Learning Lab, Digital Learning in Residential Education, and MIT Video Productions.

Capozzola has a long history of participation in the MIT Open Learning mission. A member of the MITx Faculty Advisory Committee, Capozzola also has five courses published on OpenCourseWare (OCW), and one course, Visualizing Imperialism in the Philippines, published on both MITx and the Open Learning Library.

“Chris has proven his commitment to the mission of Open Learning through his contributions both to external learners and to MIT students, as well as through his own research and professional projects. He’s also demonstrated his ability to engage collaboratively with the MIT faculty and broader community on issues related to effective delivery of educational experiences,” says Grimson. “MIT’s open online education offerings are more relevant than they’ve ever been, reaching many millions of people around the world. Chris will provide the essential faculty attention and dedicated support needed to help Open Learning continue to reflect the full spectrum of MIT’s knowledge and teaching to the world.”

Capozzola comes to MIT Open Learning from the History Section in the School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (SHASS), where he has taught since 2002. He’s the author of two books and numerous articles exploring citizenship, war, and the military in modern American history. He has served as department head since 2020 and is a MacVicar Faculty Fellow, MIT’s highest honor for undergraduate teaching. He also served as MIT’s secretary of the faculty from 2015 to 2017.

In addition to his teaching and faculty governance roles, Capozzola is an active proponent of public history. He served as a co-curator of “The Volunteers: Americans Join World War I, 1914-1919,” a multi-platform public history initiative marking the centennial of World War I. He currently serves as academic advisor for the online educational project Filipino Veterans Recognition and Education Project.

His interest in public-facing education projects has grown, he says, “because the best parts of my job involve sharing history with excited and curious audiences. It’s very clear that those audiences are enormous and global, and that learners bring their own backgrounds, questions, and interests to the kind of history we produce at MIT.”

This enthusiasm extends to MIT Open Learning as well: Capozzola is eager to work with MIT faculty to leverage digital learning to be more nimble in their teaching, and supporting learners in moving smoothly through MIT’s digital resources.

“What has drawn me to Open Learning from the beginning is my own curiosity about how we can teach better and differently, as well as the creativity of the people who are involved. Everything that I’ve worked on with Open Learning has been very collaborative,” says Capozzola. “People bring all different kinds of expertise: about technology, about the science of learning, about students at MIT and learners beyond. Only by getting everybody together and collaborating can we produce these amazing resources.”

In his new role as senior associate dean, he’s looking forward to collaborating with faculty and instructors across all of the Institute’s schools and departments, helping them to work with MIT Open Learning through every possible avenue and lowering barriers to participation.

“Open Learning is a critical component of the overall MIT mission. We need to share MIT’s knowledge with the nation and the world in the 21st century. One way to think about that is, if we’re doing something at MIT that we think advances the mission but it’s not on Open Learning, then we’re not advancing MIT’s mission,” he says. This includes offering courses through MITx and OCW, as well as working with the Residential Education team and the Digital Learning Lab to incorporate learning design and digital technologies into the classroom to improve teaching and learning at MIT.

“When it comes to technology in the classroom, I have a skeptical enthusiasm and an enthusiastic skepticism. I want to think about what it means to teach and learn at a residential university in the 2020s. We have all learned a lot of lessons about that during the pandemic, and now is a great moment to convene conversations within Open Learning, at MIT, and beyond. It’s time for thoughtful reflection about what we do and how we can engage the most people with as much of an MIT education as we can,” Capozzola says.

Another exciting opportunity Capozzola sees is guiding MIT Open Learning toward reflecting the Institute’s values and priorities as well as its knowledge. Working closely with dean for digital learning Cynthia Breazeal, who oversees MIT Open Learning’s professional and corporate education offerings and research and engagement units, Capozzola envisions developing new content and strategies that accelerate MIT’s efforts in diversity, equity, and inclusion; climate and sustainability; and more. 

“I really want Open Learning to reflect MIT. By which I mean, everyone at MIT should see themselves, their disciplines, and their high standards for teaching, learning, research represented in Open Learning,” Capozzola says. “The staff and leadership of Open Learning have worked hard over the last 10 years to do that. I’m looking forward to thinking with Open Learning and in dialog with MIT about our priorities, our values, and our next steps.”

3 Questions: John Durant on the new MIT Museum at Kendall Square

To the outside world, much of what goes on at MIT can seem mysterious. But the MIT Museum, whose new location is in the heart of Kendall Square, wants to change that. With a specially designed space by architects Höweler + Yoon, new exhibitions, and new public programs, this fall marks a reset for the 50-year-old institution. 

The museum hopes to inspire future generations of scientists, engineers, and innovators. And with its new free Cambridge Residents Membership, the museum is sending a clear message to its neighbors that all are welcome.

John Durant, The Mark R. Epstein (Class of 1963) Director of the MIT Museum and an affiliate of MIT’s Program in Science, Technology, and Society, speaks here about the museum’s transformation and what’s to come when it opens its doors to the public on Oct. 2.

Q: What role will the new museum play in making MIT more accessible and better understood?

A: The MIT Museum is consciously standing at the interface between a world-famous research institute and the wider world. Our task here is to “turn MIT inside out,” by making what MIT does visible and accessible to the wider world. We are focused on the question: What does all this intensive MIT creativity, research, innovation, teaching and learning at MIT mean? What does it all mean for the wider community of which we’re part? 

Our job as a museum is to make what MIT does, both the processes and the products, accessible. We do this for two reasons. First, MIT’s mission statement is a public service mission statement — it intends to help make the world a better place. The second reason is that MIT is involved with potentially world-changing ideas and innovations. If we’re about ideas, discoveries, inventions, and applications that can literally change the world, then we have a responsibility to the world. We have a responsibility to make these things available to the people who will end up being affected by them, so that we can have the kinds of informed conversations that are necessary in a democratic society. 

“Essential MIT,” the first gallery in the museum, highlights the people behind the research and innovation at MIT. Although it’s tempting to focus on the products of research, in the end everything we do is about the people who do it. We want to humanize research and innovation, and the best way to do that is to put the people — whether they are senior faculty, junior faculty, students, or even visitors — at the center of the story. In fact, there will be a big digital wall display of all the people that we comprise, a visualization of the MIT community, and the visitor will be able to join this community on a temporary basis if they want to, by putting themselves in the display. 

MIT can sometimes seem like a rather austere place. It may be seen as the kind of a place where only those super-smart people go to do super-smart things. We don’t want to send that message. We’re an open campus, and we want to send a message to people that whoever they are, from whatever background, whatever part of the community, whatever language they speak, wherever they live, they have a warm welcome with us. 

Q: How will the museum be showcasing innovation and research? 

A: The new museum is structured in a series of eight galleries, which spiral up the building, and that travel from the local to the global and back again. “Essential MIT” is quite explicitly an introduction to the Institute itself. In that gallery, we feature a few examples of current big projects that illustrate the kind of work that MIT does. In the last gallery, the museum becomes local again through the museum’s collections. On the top floor, for the first time in the museum’s history, we will be able to show visitors that we’re a collecting museum, and that we hold all manner of objects and artifacts, which make up a permanent record — an archive, if you will — of the research and innovation that has gone on in this place. 

But, of course, MIT doesn’t only concern itself with things that only have local significance. It’s involved in some of the biggest research questions that are being tackled worldwide: climate change, fundamental physics, genetics, artificial intelligence, the nature of cancer, and many more. Between the two bookends of these rather locally focused galleries, therefore, we have put galleries dealing with global questions in research and innovation. We’re trying to point out that current research and innovation raises big questions that go beyond the purely scientific or purely technical. We don’t want to shy away from the ethical, social, or even political questions posed by this new research, and some of these larger questions will be treated “head-on” in these galleries. 

For example, we’ve never before tried to explain to people what AI is, and what it isn’t — as well as some of its larger implications for society. In “AI: Mind the Gap,” we’re going to explain what AI is good at doing, and by the same token, what it is not good at doing. For example, we will have an interactive exhibit that allows visitors to see a neural network learning in real time — in this case, how to recognize faces and facial expressions. Such learning machines are fundamental to what AI can do, and there are many positive applications of that in the real world. We will also give people the chance to use AI to create poetry. But we’ll also be looking at some of the larger concerns that some of these technologies raise — issues like algorithmic bias, or the area called deepfake technology, which is increasingly widely used. In order to explain this technology to people, we are going to display an artwork based on the Apollo moon landings that uses deepfakes.

Nothing in the new museum is something that the visitor will have seen before, but for one exception, and it’s by careful design. We’re bringing with us some of the kinetic or moving sculptures by the artist Arthur Ganson. We value the connections his work raises at the interface between science, technology and the arts. In trying to get people to think in different ways about what’s happening in the worlds of research and innovation, artists often bring fresh perspectives.

Q: What kinds of educational opportunities will the museum now be able to present?

A: The new museum has about 30 percent more space for galleries and exhibitions than the old museum, but it has about 300 percent more space for face-to-face activities. We’re going to have two fully equipped teaching labs in the new museum, where we can teach a very wide variety of subjects, including wet lab work. We shall also have the Maker Hub, a fully-equipped maker space for the public. MIT’s motto is “mens et manus,” mind and hand, and we want to be true to that. We want to give people a chance not only just to look at stuff, but also to make stuff, to do it themselves. 

At the heart of the new museum is a space called The Exchange, which is designed for face-to-face meetings, short talks, demonstrations, panel discussions, debates, films, anything you like. I think of The Exchange as the living room of the new museum, a place with double-height ceilings, bleacher seating, and a very big LED screen so that we can show almost anything we need to show. It’s a place where visitors can gather, learn, discuss, and debate; where they can have the conversations about what to do about deepfakes, or how to apply gene editing most wisely, or whatever the issue of the day happens to be. We’re unapologetically putting these conversations center stage. 

Finally, the first month of the opening events includes an MIT Community Day, a Cambridge Residents Day, and the museum’s public opening on Oct. 2. The first week after the opening will feature the Cambridge Science Festival, the festival founded and presented by the MIT Museum which has been re-imagined this year. The festival will feature large-scale projects, many taking place in MIT’s Open Space, an area we think of as the new museum’s “front lawn.”

Study finds Wikipedia influences judicial behavior

Mixed appraisals of one of the internet’s major resources, Wikipedia, are reflected in the slightly dystopian article “List of Wikipedia Scandals.” Yet billions of users routinely flock to the online, anonymously editable, encyclopedic knowledge bank for just about everything. How this unauthoritative source influences our discourse and decisions is hard to reliably trace. But a new study attempts to measure how knowledge gleaned from Wikipedia may play out in one specific realm: the courts.

A team of researchers led by Neil Thompson, a research scientist at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), recently came up with a friendly experiment: creating new legal Wikipedia articles to examine how they affect the legal decisions of judges. They set off by developing over 150 new Wikipedia articles on Irish Supreme Court decisions, written by law students. Half of these were randomly chosen to be uploaded online, where they could be used by judges, clerks, lawyers, and so on — the “treatment” group. The other half were kept offline, and this second group of cases provided the counterfactual basis of what would happen to a case absent a Wikipedia article about it (the “control”). They then looked at two measures: whether the cases were more likely to be cited as precedents by subsequent judicial decisions, and whether the argumentation in court judgments echoed the linguistic content of the new Wikipedia pages. 

It turned out the published articles tipped the scales: Getting a public Wikipedia article increased a case’s citations by more than 20 percent. The increase was statistically significant, and the effect was particularly strong for cases that supported the argument the citing judge was making in their decision (but not the converse). Unsurprisingly, the increase was bigger for citations by lower courts — the High Court — and mostly absent for citations by appellate courts — the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal. The researchers suspect this is showing that Wikipedia is used more by judges or clerks who have a heavier workload, for whom the convenience of Wikipedia offers a greater attraction. 

“To our knowledge, this is the first randomized field experiment that investigates the influence of legal sources on judicial behavior. And because randomized experiments are the gold standard for this type of research, we know the effect we are seeing is causation, not just correlation,” says Thompson, the lead author of the study. “The fact that we wrote up all these cases, but the only ones that ended up on Wikipedia were those that won the proverbial ‘coin flip,’ allows us to show that Wikipedia is influencing both what judges cite and how they write up their decisions.”

“Our results also highlight an important public policy issue,” Thompson adds. “With a source that is as widely used as Wikipedia, we want to make sure we are building institutions to ensure that the information is of the highest quality. The finding that judges or their staffs are using Wikipedia is a much bigger worry if the information they find there isn’t reliable.” 

A paper describing the study is being published in “The Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Jurisprudence” (Cambridge University Press, 2022). Joining Thompson on the paper are Brian Flannigan, Edana Richardson, and Brian McKenzie of Maynooth University in Ireland and Xueyun Luo of Cornell University.

The researchers’ statistical model essentially compared how much citation behavior changed for the treatment group (first difference: before versus after) and how that compared with the change that happened for the control group (second difference: treatment versus control).

In 2018, Thompson first visited the idea of proving the causal role that Wikipedia plays in shaping knowledge and behavior by looking at how it shapes academic science. It turns out that adding scientific articles, in this case about chemistry, changed how the topic was discussed in scientific literature, and science articles added as references to Wikipedia received more academic citations as well. 

That led Brian McKenzie, an associate professor at Maynooth University, to make a call. I was working with students to add articles to Wikipedia at the time I read Neil’s research on the influence of Wikipedia on scientific research,” explains McKenzie. “There were only a handful of Irish Supreme Court cases on Wikipedia so I reached out to Neil to ask if he wanted to design another iteration of his experiment using court cases.”

The Irish legal system proved the perfect test bed, as it shares a key similarity with other national legal systems such as the United Kingdom and United States — it operates within a hierarchical court structure where decisions of higher courts subsequently bind lower courts. Also, there are relatively few Wikipedia articles on Irish Supreme Court decisions compared to those of the U.S. Supreme Court — over the course of their project, the researchers increased the number of such articles tenfold. 

In addition to looking at the case citations made in the decisions, the team also analyzed the language used in the written decision using natural language processing. What they found were the linguistic fingerprints of the Wikipedia articles that they’d created.

So what might this influence look like? Suppose A sues B in federal district court. A argues that B is liable for breach of contract; B acknowledges A’s account of the facts but maintains that they gave rise to no contract between them. The assigned judge, conscious of the heavy work already delegated to his clerks, decides to conduct her own research. On reviewing the parties’ submissions, the judge forms the preliminary view that a contract has not truly been formed and that she should give judgment for the defendant. To write his official opinion, the judge googles some previous decisions cited in B’s brief that seem similar to the case between A and B. On confirming their similarity by reading the relevant case summaries on Wikipedia, the judge paraphrases some of the text of the Wikipedia entries in his draft opinion to complete his analysis. The judge then enters his judgment and publishes his opinion. 

“The text of a court’s judgment itself will guide the law as it becomes a source of precedent for subsequent judicial decision-making. Future lawyers and judges will look back at that written judgment, and use it to decide what its implications are so that they can treat ‘like’ cases alike,” says coauthor Brian Flanagan. “If the text itself is influenced, as this experiment shows, by anonymously sourced internet content, that’s a problem. For the many potential cracks that have opened up in our “information superhighway” that is the internet, you can imagine that this vulnerability could potentially lead to adversarial actors manipulating information. If easily accessible analysis of legal questions is already being relied on, it behooves the legal community to accelerate efforts to ensure that such analysis is both comprehensive and expert.”

How To Find The Best Commercial Roofing In Oklahoma City

As a commercial property owner, you know that your roof’s condition can impact your property’s overall value. If your roof is in good condition, it will protect your property from the elements and keep it looking its best. However, if your roof is in poor condition, it can seriously impact the value of your property. That’s why you should ensure that your commercial roof is in good condition.

There are a lot of different roofing materials and systems out there, and it can be tough to know which one is right for your property. That’s where commercial roofing contractors come in. They can help you assess the condition of your roof and make recommendations for repairs or replacement.

When you require a commercial roofing contractor, there are a few things you will want to keep in mind. You want to ensure that you hire a contractor who has the experience, is reliable, and will do the job right. Here are five things to consider before you choose the best commercial roofing contractor for your needs:

Experience

You will want to ensure that the contractor you hire has a lot of experience. The last thing you want is for your roof to be damaged because the contractor did not know what they were doing. One should know that commercial Oklahoma City roofing contractors have the experience and expertise to get the job done precisely. They can also help you choose the right roofing material and system for your property. If you’re not sure whether to repair or replace your roof, commercial roofing Oklahoma City can help you make the decision that is best for your property.

Reliability

You need to be able to rely on your contractor to show up on time and to do the job right. If you can’t rely on them, spend time finding someone else.

Willingness to do the job right

You don’t want to hire a contractor who can get interested in getting the job done quickly. You want someone willing to take the time to do the job right.

Affordable

You don’t want to spend a fortune on your roof, but you also don’t want to sacrifice quality. Make sure you find a contractor who demands less and will also do a good job.

Good reviews

Take the time to read reviews of different contractors before you make a decision. It will help you weed out the bad apples and find the best one for your needs. Keep these things in mind, and you will be able to find the best commercial OK roofing contractor for your needs.

Conclusion

Hopefully, you now know where to go. Don’t wait until your roof is in poor condition to start thinking about commercial roofing. If you’re thinking about making improvements to your property, consider hiring a contractor who can work for commercial roofing in Oklahoma City to assess the condition of your roof. They can help you make the best decision for your property and keep your roof in a good position for years to come.

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Explained: How to tell if artificial intelligence is working the way we want it to

About a decade ago, deep-learning models started achieving superhuman results on all sorts of tasks, from beating world-champion board game players to outperforming doctors at diagnosing breast cancer.

These powerful deep-learning models are usually based on artificial neural networks, which were first proposed in the 1940s and have become a popular type of machine learning. A computer learns to process data using layers of interconnected nodes, or neurons, that mimic the human brain. 

As the field of machine learning has grown, artificial neural networks have grown along with it.

Deep-learning models are now often composed of millions or billions of interconnected nodes in many layers that are trained to perform detection or classification tasks using vast amounts of data. But because the models are so enormously complex, even the researchers who design them don’t fully understand how they work. This makes it hard to know whether they are working correctly.

For instance, maybe a model designed to help physicians diagnose patients correctly predicted that a skin lesion was cancerous, but it did so by focusing on an unrelated mark that happens to frequently occur when there is cancerous tissue in a photo, rather than on the cancerous tissue itself. This is known as a spurious correlation. The model gets the prediction right, but it does so for the wrong reason. In a real clinical setting where the mark does not appear on cancer-positive images, it could result in missed diagnoses.

With so much uncertainty swirling around these so-called “black-box” models, how can one unravel what’s going on inside the box?

This puzzle has led to a new and rapidly growing area of study in which researchers develop and test explanation methods (also called interpretability methods) that seek to shed some light on how black-box machine-learning models make predictions.

What are explanation methods?

At their most basic level, explanation methods are either global or local. A local explanation method focuses on explaining how the model made one specific prediction, while global explanations seek to describe the overall behavior of an entire model. This is often done by developing a separate, simpler (and hopefully understandable) model that mimics the larger, black-box model.

But because deep learning models work in fundamentally complex and nonlinear ways, developing an effective global explanation model is particularly challenging. This has led researchers to turn much of their recent focus onto local explanation methods instead, explains Yilun Zhou, a graduate student in the Interactive Robotics Group of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) who studies models, algorithms, and evaluations in interpretable machine learning.

The most popular types of local explanation methods fall into three broad categories.

The first and most widely used type of explanation method is known as feature attribution. Feature attribution methods show which features were most important when the model made a specific decision.

Features are the input variables that are fed to a machine-learning model and used in its prediction. When the data are tabular, features are drawn from the columns in a dataset (they are transformed using a variety of techniques so the model can process the raw data). For image-processing tasks, on the other hand, every pixel in an image is a feature. If a model predicts that an X-ray image shows cancer, for instance, the feature attribution method would highlight the pixels in that specific X-ray that were most important for the model’s prediction.

Essentially, feature attribution methods show what the model pays the most attention to when it makes a prediction.

“Using this feature attribution explanation, you can check to see whether a spurious correlation is a concern. For instance, it will show if the pixels in a watermark are highlighted or if the pixels in an actual tumor are highlighted,” says Zhou.

A second type of explanation method is known as a counterfactual explanation. Given an input and a model’s prediction, these methods show how to change that input so it falls into another class. For instance, if a machine-learning model predicts that a borrower would be denied a loan, the counterfactual explanation shows what factors need to change so her loan application is accepted. Perhaps her credit score or income, both features used in the model’s prediction, need to be higher for her to be approved.

“The good thing about this explanation method is it tells you exactly how you need to change the input to flip the decision, which could have practical usage. For someone who is applying for a mortgage and didn’t get it, this explanation would tell them what they need to do to achieve their desired outcome,” he says.

The third category of explanation methods are known as sample importance explanations. Unlike the others, this method requires access to the data that were used to train the model.

A sample importance explanation will show which training sample a model relied on most when it made a specific prediction; ideally, this is the most similar sample to the input data. This type of explanation is particularly useful if one observes a seemingly irrational prediction. There may have been a data entry error that affected a particular sample that was used to train the model. With this knowledge, one could fix that sample and retrain the model to improve its accuracy.

How are explanation methods used?

One motivation for developing these explanations is to perform quality assurance and debug the model. With more understanding of how features impact a model’s decision, for instance, one could identify that a model is working incorrectly and intervene to fix the problem, or toss the model out and start over.

Another, more recent, area of research is exploring the use of machine-learning models to discover scientific patterns that humans haven’t uncovered before. For instance, a cancer diagnosing model that outperforms clinicians could be faulty, or it could actually be picking up on some hidden patterns in an X-ray image that represent an early pathological pathway for cancer that were either unknown to human doctors or thought to be irrelevant, Zhou says.

It’s still very early days for that area of research, however.

Words of warning

While explanation methods can sometimes be useful for machine-learning practitioners when they are trying to catch bugs in their models or understand the inner-workings of a system, end-users should proceed with caution when trying to use them in practice, says Marzyeh Ghassemi, an assistant professor and head of the Healthy ML Group in CSAIL.

As machine learning has been adopted in more disciplines, from health care to education, explanation methods are being used to help decision makers better understand a model’s predictions so they know when to trust the model and use its guidance in practice. But Ghassemi warns against using these methods in that way.

“We have found that explanations make people, both experts and nonexperts, overconfident in the ability or the advice of a specific recommendation system. I think it is very important for humans not to turn off that internal circuitry asking, ‘let me question the advice that I am
given,’” she says.

Scientists know explanations make people over-confident based on other recent work, she adds, citing some recent studies by Microsoft researchers.

Far from a silver bullet, explanation methods have their share of problems. For one, Ghassemi’s recent research has shown that explanation methods can perpetuate biases and lead to worse outcomes for people from disadvantaged groups.

Another pitfall of explanation methods is that it is often impossible to tell if the explanation method is correct in the first place. One would need to compare the explanations to the actual model, but since the user doesn’t know how the model works, this is circular logic, Zhou says.

He and other researchers are working on improving explanation methods so they are more faithful to the actual model’s predictions, but Zhou cautions that, even the best explanation should be taken with a grain of salt.

“In addition, people generally perceive these models to be human-like decision makers, and we are prone to overgeneralization. We need to calm people down and hold them back to really make sure that the generalized model understanding they build from these local explanations are balanced,” he adds.

Zhou’s most recent research seeks to do just that.

What’s next for machine-learning explanation methods?

Rather than focusing on providing explanations, Ghassemi argues that more effort needs to be done by the research community to study how information is presented to decision makers so they understand it, and more regulation needs to be put in place to ensure machine-learning models are used responsibly in practice. Better explanation methods alone aren’t the answer.

“I have been excited to see that there is a lot more recognition, even in industry, that we can’t just take this information and make a pretty dashboard and assume people will perform better with that. You need to have measurable improvements in action, and I’m hoping that leads to real guidelines about improving the way we display information in these deeply technical fields, like medicine,” she says.

And in addition to new work focused on improving explanations, Zhou expects to see more research related to explanation methods for specific use cases, such as model debugging, scientific discovery, fairness auditing, and safety assurance. By identifying fine-grained characteristics of explanation methods and the requirements of different use cases, researchers could establish a theory that would match explanations with specific scenarios, which could help overcome some of the pitfalls that come from using them in real-world scenarios.

Review: IT in health care has produced modest changes — so far

It has never been hard to imagine how information technology (IT) might improve health care services. Fast messaging replacing faxes. Electronic health records that can be accessed more easily. Software that can inform doctors’ decisions. Telemedicine that makes care more flexible. The possibilities seem endless.

But as a new review paper from an MIT economist finds, the overall impact of information technology on health care has been evolutionary, not revolutionary. Technology has lowered costs and improved patient care — but to a modest extent that varies across the health care landscape, while only improving productivity slightly. High-tech tools have also not replaced many health care workers.

“What we found is that even though there’s been this explosion in IT adoption, there hasn’t been a dramatic change in health care productivity,” says Joseph Doyle, an economist at the MIT Sloan School of Management and co-author of the new paper. “We’ve seen in other industries that it takes time to learn how to use [IT] best. Health care seems to be marching along that path.”

Relatedly, when it comes to heath care jobs, Doyle says, “We don’t see dramatic changes in employment or wages across different levels of health care. We’re seeing case evidence of less hiring of people who transcribe orders, while for people who work in IT, we’re seeing more hiring of workers with those skills. But nothing dramatic in terms of nurse employment or doctor employment.”

Still, Doyle notes that health care “could be on the cusp of major changes” as organizations get more comfortable deploying technology efficiently.

The paper, “The Impact of Health Information and Communication Technology on Clinical Quality, Productivity, and Workers,” has been published online by the Annual Review of Economics as part of their August issue.

The authors are Ari Bronsoler PhD ’22, a recent doctoral graduate in economics at MIT; Doyle, who is the Erwin H. Schell Professor of Management and Applied Economics at the MIT Sloan School of Management; and John Van Reenen, a digital fellow in MIT’s Initiative for the Digital Economy and the Ronald Coase School Professor at the London School of Economics.

Safety first

The paper itself is a broad-ranging review of 975 academic research papers on technology and health care services; Doyle is a leading health care economist whose own quasiexperimental studies have quantified, among other things, the difference that increased health care spending yields. This literature review was developed as part of MIT’s Work of the Future project, which aims to better understand the effects of innovation on jobs. Given that health care spending accounted for 18 percent of U.S. GDP in 2020, grasping the effects of high-tech tools on the sector is an important component of this effort.

One facet of health care that has seen massive IT-based change is the use of electronic health records. In 2009, fewer than 10 percent of hospitals were using such records; by 2014, about 97 percent hospitals had them. In turn, these records allow for easier flow of information within providers and help with the use of clinical decision-support tools — software that helps inform doctors’ decisions.

However, a review of the evidence shows the health care industry has not followed up to the same extent regarding other kinds of applications, like decision-support tools. One reason for that may be patient-safety concerns.

“There is risk aversion when it comes to people’s health,” Doyle observes. “You [medical providers] don’t want to make a mistake. As you go to a new system, you have to make sure you’re doing it very, very well, in order to not let anything fall through the cracks as you make that transition. So, I can see why IT adoption would take longer in health care, as organizations make that transition.”

Multiple studies do show a boost in overall productivity stemming from IT applications in health care, but not by an eye-catching amount — the total effect seems to be from roughly 1 percent to about 3 percent.

Complements to the job, not substitutes, so far

Patient outcomes also seem to be helped by IT, but with effects that vary. Examining other literature reviews of specific studies, the authors note that a 2011 survey found 60 percent of studies showed better patient outcomes associated with greater IT use, no effect in 30 percent of studies, and a negative association in 10 percent of studies. A 2018 review of 37 studies found positive effects from IT in 30 cases, 7 studies with no clear effect, and none with negative effects.

The more positive effects in more recent studies “may reflect a learning curve” by the industry, Bronsoler, Doyle, and Van Reenen write in their paper.

Their analysis also suggests that despite periodic claims that technology will wipe out health care jobs — through imaging, robots, and more — IT tools themselves have not reduced the medical labor force. In 1990, there were 8 million health care workers in the U.S., accounting for 7 percent of jobs; today there are 16 million health care workers in the U.S., accounting for 11 percent of jobs. In that time there has been a slight reduction in medical clerical workers, dropping from 16 percent to 13 percent of the health care workforce, likely due to automation of some routine tasks. But the persistence of hands-on jobs has been robust: The percentage of nurses has slightly increased among health care jobs since 1990, for example, from 15.5 percent to 17.1 percent.

“We don’t see a major shock to the labor markets yet,” Doyle says. “These digital tools are mostly supportive [for workers], as opposed to replacements. We say in economics that they’re complements and not substitutes, at least so far.”

Will tech lower our bills, or not?

As the authors note in the paper, past trends are no guarantee of future outcomes. In some industries, adoption of IT tools in recent decades has been halting at first and more influential later. And in the history of technology, many important inventions, like electricity, produce their greatest effects decades after their introduction.

It is thus possible that the U.S. health care industry could be headed toward some more substantial IT-based shifts in the future.

“We can see the pandemic speeding up telemedicine, for example,” Doyle says. To be sure, he notes, that trend depends in part on what patients want outside of the acute stages of a pandemic: “People have started to get used to interacting with their physicians [on video] for routine things. Other things, you need to go in and be seen … But this adoption-diffusion curve has had a discontinuity [a sudden increase] during the pandemic.”

Still, even the adoption of telemedicine also depends on its costs, Doyle notes.

“Every phone call now becomes a [virtual] visit,” he says. “Figuring out how we pay for that in a way that still encourages the adoption, but doesn’t break the bank, is something payers [insurers] and providers are negotiating as we speak.”

Regarding all IT changes in medicine, Doyle adds, “Even though already we spend one in every five dollars that we have on health care, having more access to health care could increase the amount we spend. It could also improve health in ways that subsequently prevent escalation of major health care expenses.” In this sense, he adds, IT could “add to our health care bills or moderate our health care bills.”

For their part, Bronsoler, Doyle, and Van Reenen are working on a study that tracks variation in U.S. state privacy laws to see how those policies affect information sharing and the use of electronic health records. In all areas of health care, he adds, continued study of technology’s impact is welcome.

‘There is a lot more research to be done,” Doyle says.

Funding for the research was provided, in part, by the MIT Work of the Future Task Force, and the U.K.’s Economic and Social Research Council, through its Programme On Innovation and Diffusion.

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